Volume 49 Issue 6 June 1999

George Orwell's last novel was published on 8 June, 1949.

Performed at the St James's Hall in Piccadilly.

David Chandler tells how Napoleon’s first battle with the British saved the vital port of Toulon – and opened the door to a glittering military career.

Akhbar Ahmed argues that the rise of Muslim fundamentalists means that Islamic leaders face a choice between moderation or militancy.

Account of the life of the socialite Marguerite Blessington.

Raymond E Role explores the evolution of the intramural games that began in the Middle Ages and still flourish in Italy today.

Jan Herman Brinks examines the Dutch myth of resistance and finds collaboration with the Nazis went right to the top.

Peter Connolly explains how he became the most admired historical illustrator-author on Greece and Rome.

David Nash argues that opposition to the Second Boer War began the tradition of peace politics that has flourished through the twentieth century.

J.S. Hamilton weighs the evidence and concludes that Edward II and his notorious favourite were more than just good friends.

Who discovered Australia? Most people think of the First Fleet that went to Botany Bay 1788, but our ideas may require rethinking, following recent research on DNA analysis, and epidemiological studies of a rare disease. 

Obituary of the late Art and Production Editor of History Today

Clare Griffiths reflects on the last time a Labour government faced angry farmers fighting for their livelihood.

Christabel Gurney describes the origins of the British movement to oppose apartheid.