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Volume 45 Issue 4 April 1995

Richard Cavendish explores the Bell Foundry Museum.

Luke Syson examines how artifice, art and political calculation combined to produce medal portraits by Sperandio of Mantua for two of Renaissance Italy's "warhorses", Giovanni Bentivoglio and Federico da Montelfeltro.

Graham Seel reassesses the career of Oliver Cromwell's predecessor as Parliamentary Commander in the 1640s, Robert Devereux, 3rd Earl of Essex, and argues that he has been harshly judged by English Civil War historians.

Monarchs could do anything – or could they? Steven Ellis examines what happened when commands from the centre had to he executed in practice in the remoter parts of the kingdom.

Tony Aldous takes a look at the establishment of county teams, set up for the preservation of historical buildings around the country.

95 years after his death, Lancaster University creates a modern masterpiece to house John Ruskin's books, manuscripts and diaries

Penelope Corfield looks at the controversy about religion and ancien régime in the Georgian state and comes to a pluralist conclusion.

Nicholas Soteri reflects on the early religious controversies of Eastern Europe, focusing in particular on an often overlooked kingdom, the Khazar.

Michael Sturma identifies the portrayal of South pacific women.

Jeffrey Richards rekindles Humphrey Jennings' stirring wartime portrayal of firefighters who became heroes of the Blitz.

Joseph H Berke examines how a country's internal conflicts creates opportunities for men such as Adolf Hitler.