Volume 36 Issue 7 July 1986

Paul Preston and Helen Graham discuss the tension developing in the Europe of the 30s as the Left attempted to unite against the growth of Fascism and the bloody timetable of political collapse, uprisings and mutiny that transformed a half-successful coup d'etat into a protracted civil war.

'Plus ca change, plus c'est la meme chose'... many of the agricultural practices described in the art and literature of classical Greece persist to the present day.

Though hymned by writers as an exemplum of Sparta's virtue, was Agesilaos the author as well as the spectator of her decline and fall?

Helen Graham on the political coalitions in Spain in the 1930s and their role in blocking Fascism.

Three texts dealing with the transition from the Renaissance to the Modern Age

Alan Sked looks at the sensational leaking of Austrian military secrets to Russia on the eve of the First World War.

Stephen Johnson discusses the opening of an 11th century castle in Northumberland.

'In the beginning, America was in the way'. Only slowly did 16th-century Englishmen turn from the chimera of a short-cut to Asia's riches to the vision of precious metals to be mined and colonies planted in the New World.

by Hugh David

Cometh the hour, cometh the man - is this the secret of Braudel's fame as the Victor Hugo of French history?

Paul Preston follows the unsettled road leading to the clash between the Republicans and Nationalists.

Brian Holden Reid recounts his own experiences of great military events. their literature, political significance and memory.

Ann Hills explores the impact on various eras of history of the mines of the Nenthead area.

In this abridged version of the prize-winning essay from our recent competition, Tracey Earl follows the fortunes of the Protestant refugees who came to Canterbury from the sixteenth century onwards.

Tony Thorncroft on the sale of golfing memorabilia.