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Volume 35 Issue 11 November 1985

Franco's traditional image has been as a canny neutral in the struggle between the Allied and Axis powers. But in 1940 his aspirations for an African empire drew him to within an ace of war with Britain.

'Art for art's sake' – but not for many historians. The fine and decorative arts, their styles and iconography, have been mined for insight into the politics, religion and social obsessions of the past. Placing key images alongside the views of six contributors we continue the search.

Historic attachments to heroic leadership combined with a mastery of propaganda techniques to mesmerise Germany into acceptance of the charismatic authority offered by the Führer. 

Kenneth Lunn looks at the dynamics of the labour movement's reaction to new migrants.

Peter Burke discusses historical amnesia and cultural roots.

Simon Schaffer explores the occult.

A Satanic conspiracy designed from the beginning to eliminate European Jewry? Or ad hoc responses aimed at replenishing Nazi zeal and producing convenient scapegoats? A fresh look at one of the most hideous episodes in world history.

John Guy uncovers Tudor England's legal profession.

Paul Preston assesses how time has obscured the legacy of the Spanish military rebel and leader.