Volume 35 Issue 10 October 1985

Protestant, martyr and anti-Catholic icon, prodigy of Renaissance learning, model evangelical schoolgirl, star-crossed lover, Hollywood heroine? The changing images history has given the Nine Days Queen of 1553.

Richard Bessel outlines the new perspectives in this series on Nazi Germany.

Not all young Germans were enthusiasts for Hitler Youth ideas - and some actively opposed them.

A ballot-box 'revolution' made Hitler Chancellor of Germany. But political violence was the stock-in-trade consolidating Nazi power piecemeal throughout 1933 against disorganised opponents.

Distilled 'spirit of the age' or a branch of sociology? Great men and their thoughts - with a lucky dip for culture vultures - or elite ideas whose time had come? Five historians discuss ground rules for the study of intellectual history. 

The continuing struggle in Ireland, and the atrocities which it produces within Great Britain, are given full attention by the media.

Four viewpoints - one from its editor, three from reviewers - on the making of a major new historical encyclopedia.

Colin Holmes assesses racial violence in Britain from 1911-19.

With government sponsorship and prodigious fieldwork, Elizabethan cartography reached heights unequalled elsewhere in Western Europe.

In the early 1930s, when National Socialism became a mass movement, it drew strong support from the Protestant rural population. The emergence of the Third Reich and the advent of the Second World War saw a gradual shift in attitudes to the Nazi movement and regime. Gerhard Wilke looks at a rural community in northern Hesse.

Francis Robinson on the collections and ornate palaces of the Top Kapi Saray museum in Istanbul.