The French Restoration, 1814-1830: Part I

In contemporary eyes, writes D.W. Brogan, there was a close parallel between the Restoration of the Bourbons and the Restoration of the Stewarts. The revival of the French monarchy was expected to fail, and for the same reasons. Nor did this prophecy prove incorrect.

Caricature of Louis preparing for the Spanish expedition, by George CruikshankIn a famous opening passage of the Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte, Marx lays down an historical law, which has become shortened into the epigram that history repeats itself, first as tragedy, then as farce.

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