Spreading east in the 11th century, the Normans soon became a feared part of the Byzantine army, but a mercenary’s loyalty is always to his paymaster, as the empire would soon discover.
The fluid and unfixed Byzantine Empire.
Though the beginnings of the Byzantine Empire are unclear, its demise is not. The history of the Eastern Roman Empire, from its foundation in 324 to its conquest in 1453, is one of war, plague, architectural triumphs and fear of God's wrath.
An embattled emperor offered guidance to his successors in the shape of a ‘mirror for princes’.
The changing shape of the slave trade in the medieval Mediterranean.
The Byzantine Empire's ban on the veneration of icons died with its last iconoclast emperor on January 20th, 842.
Russian hooligans at a football match might be a relative novelty, but there is nothing new under the sun.
The Byzantine emperor died in Constantinople on 14 November 565.
In drawing parallels with international events of the 1980s and 1990s, Michael Antonucci’s article from 1993 neglected the ideology that underpinned Byzantine diplomacy.
Liz James celebrates the Eastern Empire’s artistic heritage and its pivotal role in shaping Europe and the Islamic world of the Middle Ages.