Europe

Refining the Body Beautiful

There is beauty to be had from the smallest of objects. In the 18th century, tweezers, toothpicks and clippers became the signs of a polite, and beautiful, society.

Penn's Plan for a United Europe

Long before today’s project for a European political and economic union, William Penn, the English founder of Pennsylvania, offered a utopian vision of a Europe beyond the nation state, as Peter Schröder explains. 

Boris Johnson's Abuse of Churchill

In using Churchill to justify his Brexit campaign, Boris Johnson 'paints a barbarically simplified and ill-informed picture of what Churchill stood for'.

The Holy Roman Empire

The millennium-long history of the Holy Roman Empire has been wilfully misunderstood since the rise of the nation state. But can its past shed light on Europe’s future? 

The Bourbon Restoration

Following Napoleon’s defeat at Waterloo, France’s Bourbon monarchy was restored. It was the first, fragile step in a diminished state’s return to the family of European nations.