Political

miniature showing a battle, from 'The Book of Feats of Arms and of Chivalry', by Christine de Pisan, French, 1434.© Bridgeman Images

To whom should one pledge fealty? Lord, king, brother or nation?

A meeting of the British Communist Party, Earls Court, London, 5 August 1939 © Hulton Getty Images.

It was not the Nazi-Soviet Pact, but the ‘Party line’, which brought an end to the era of ‘fellow travellers’, 80 years ago.

Oliver Cromwell sends parliament away, 1653. Rijksmuseum.

Over the last 30 years, the UK’s political class has swapped ideology for values and sleepwalked into major constitutional and political change. What can it learn from the last time it faced a crisis of such magnitude?

The Battle of the Casino dei Quattro Venti During the Siege of Rome, by Carl Friedrich Heinrich, 1849 © Bridgeman Images

The little-known republic was a short-lived experiment in constitutional democracy.

Ernest Bevin as Foreign Secretary, August 1945 © Popperfoto/Getty Images

A remarkable political career suggests that social mobility is of benefit to us all.

Disturbances  at Manchester!, illustration by Atkins, 1819 © Mary Evans Picture Library

Commemoration of Peterloo remembers the dead, but also promotes future democratic change.

‘March of the Women on Versailles, Paris, 5 October 1789’, 18th-century engraving © Bridgeman Images

Liberalism became the dominant ideology of the West when it was adopted by Britain and the United States. But its roots lie elsewhere.

Obverse side of a medal commemorating the Peterloo Massacre, 19th century © Timothy Millett Collection/Bridgeman Images

It is the 200th anniversary of the Peterloo Massacre. How have the events of that day been remembered?

Margaret Thatcher and Conservative  Party Chairman Cecil Parkinson, celebrating the Conservative election victory, 9 June 1983 © Getty Images

Assessing Margaret Thatcher’s premiership: a radical decade and a divisive legacy. 

‘Hitler wants Hogg’: children with placards supporting A.D. Lindsay, Oxford, 27 October 1938.

The by-elections of 1938 are part of the long history of Independent Progressives in British politics.