Political

‘Hitler wants Hogg’: children with placards supporting A.D. Lindsay, Oxford, 27 October 1938.

The by-elections of 1938 are part of the long history of Independent Progressives in British politics.

Illustration by Ben Jones.

The Labour Party’s recent entanglement with antisemitism came as a shock to many. At its root is the issue of nationalism. 

Mosaic from Hagia Sofia depicting Constantine I with a representation of the city of Constantinople

Though the beginnings of the Byzantine Empire are unclear, its demise is not. The history of the Eastern Roman Empire, from its foundation in 324 to its conquest in 1453, is one of war, plague, architectural triumphs and fear of God's wrath.

The ‘C Room’ in the Members’ Library.

For 200 years, the House of Commons Library has guided politicians and policy.

Robert  Banks Jenkinson, 2nd Earl of Liverpool, portrait by Thomas Lawrence, 1820.

The prime minister at the time of Napoleon’s defeat was a keen observer of European politics. His government sought a balance of power on the Continent, but with minimal British engagement.

'The Polling' (detail), the third in William Hogarth’s four-part series, An Election, 1754.

What electoral rights did Britons have in the century before 1918?

At the beginning of the 20th century the Great Powers competed for the right to extract the vast oil reserves around the Iraqi city of Mosul. The motivation – and prize – was energy security. 

Winning the vote meant millions of women needed a party to represent them in Parliament. Emmeline and Christabel Pankhurst founded one, with limited success.

Citizen Clem: Attlee during his time as prime minister, 1945-51. © Hulton/Getty Images.

Fiercely anti-Communist, Clement Attlee found Britain’s intelligence agencies to be invaluable tools.

The Oaths of Strasbourg from Nithard's history, late tenth century. © Bridgeman Images

The earliest surviving written evidence of a Romance language, the Oaths of Strasbourg were sworn on February 14th, 842.