Soviet Union

During the fierce struggle that followed the Russian Revolution, writes David Footman, an intrepid Ukrainian guerilla leader waged war against Whites and Reds alike.

Sydney D. Bailey offers up a study in Soviet diplomacy.

A century ago, writes Patrick Renshaw, Karl Marx and his colleagues founded in London the first International Workingmen's Association, a body from which many varieties of socialism and communism have since developed.

Patrick Renshaw introduces an archetypal twentieth century figure: the American Trade Unionist who fled to Russia and who Comintern believed they could use to lead an American Bolshevik revolution.

Reorganised by Trotsky in 1918, writes David Footman, the Bolshevik forces gradually prevailed against the Whites in Eastern Russia and Siberia.

A brilliant intelligence officer at MI5, Guy Liddell’s reputation was damaged forever by one great failure: his deception by the Cambridge spies. Ben Macintyre describes the slow dawning of treachery described in the final volume of Liddell’s remarkable diaries.

After service in the Russo-Japanese War, writes Norman Saul, the Aurora helped to secure the Bolshevik triumph in Petrograd.

“We shall now proceed to construct the Socialist order” announced Lenin to the Congress of Soviets early on the morning of November 8th, 1917. He had prepared no blueprint from which to work, and forty years later, writes Ernest Bock, the structure of the Soviet state is very different from that which its founder envisaged.

Lenin with Swedish socialists Ture Nerman and Carl Lindhagen in Stockholm, March 1917

Lenin’s return to Russia by German agency in April 1917, writes David Woodward, was one of the turning points in 20th-century history.

Trotsky in 1921

Christopher Weaver describes how one of the creators of modern Soviet Russia met a hideous death in Mexico.