First World War

Edith Cavell, c.1910 © Getty Images

How did an executed English nurse become the unlikely protector of the German poet who pronounced her dead?

Friedrich Nietzsche, by Edvard Munch, c.1906. © Munch Museet, Oslo, Norway/Bridgeman Images

As a frontline soldier in the First World War, the German artist Otto Dix fell under the spell of the writings of Friedrich Nietzsche and his assault on Christian morality.

German soldiers in Paris, 1943 © Getty Images

A personal interpretation of France under two occupations, reissued as a Modern Classic.

German soldiers look out over Riga’s old town from the tower of St Peter’s Church, 1917 © Bridgeman Images

Events in the Baltic States at the end of the First World War had serious long-term consequences.

Zimmermann Telegram as Received by the German Ambassador to Mexico (detail)

A secret communication between Germany and Mexico was exposed on 3 March 1917.

Robert Graves in 1920

The life and work of the war poet and author is revealed in all its rich complexity.

German stormtroops depicted in ‘Either … Or …’, from the magazine Simplicissimus, August 1918. Illustration by Eduard Thöny.

When the Great War broke out in 1914, the German imperial army was regarded as the finest fighting force on earth. Just four years later, it was crushed by Britain and its allies.

Armistice celebrations  in London, 11 November 1918.

Having survived the rigours of the Great War, soldiers faced the return to civilian life. For some, it presented an even greater challenge.

Holding the line: French soldiers blinded by gassing at the Marne, 1918.

The British public are obsessed with the First World War, but know little about how it was brought to an end.

Winston Churchill, First Lord of the Admiralty, on board the Royal Yacht, 1912.

Competing narratives on Churchill’s role in the tragedy of Gallipoli have confused the man with the myth.