English Civil War

Great Britain and Ireland, from the Theatrum Orbis Terrarum, by Willem Blaeu, 1635 © Bridgeman Images.

The path to Britain’s Civil Wars of the 17th century was paved in the three very different realms of England, Scotland and Ireland. But it was in the richest and most populous of these that crisis escalated into conflict.

Lucius Cary, 2nd Viscount Falkland, by Anthony Van Dyck, 1641. Collection of the Duke of Devonshire, Chatsworth House, Derbyshire/Bridgeman Images

In an age of political and religious division that ended in Civil War, Lucius Cary and his circle at Great Tew offered a space for debate and compromise.

Rise and fall: Cromwell Dissolving the Long Parliament, by Benjamin West (1782).

The English republic was brought down by the same forces that brought it to power.

Monument commemorating the Battle of Naseby.

The dramatic events that shook Britain in the 17th century resonate more strongly than ever, despite attempts to marginalise them.

Dress found off the coast of Texel in April, 2015. Copyright Museum Kaap Skil

The often overlooked importance of maritime affairs on the course of the Civil Wars.

Wheelchair of Sir Thomas Fairfax, parliamentarian commander-in-chief

The Civil Wars of the 17th century prompted pioneering medical care and welfare, provided by the state not just for soldiers but for the widows and children they left behind, as Eric Gruber von Arni and Andrew Hopper show.

The uppermost skeletons in the larger of the two mass graves, at the north-east side of the site. The person at the centre was laid on his right side on top of another individual. Credit Richard Annis/Durham University

Remains found at Durham University shed new light on Oliver Cromwell's victory at the Battle of Dunbar.

Femme fatale: Wenceslaus Hollar's 'Winter', 1643.

A protest against the English Civil War ends in tragedy.

The Pourtraiture of His Royal Highness, Oliver, 1659.

The attraction of the Cromwell Association lies in the lack of reverence it attaches to its subject.

Accounts of the second siege of the royalist stronghold in Dorset during England’s Civil Wars have romanticised the role of its aristocratic owner. But was Mary, Lady Bankes even there? Patrick Little investigates.