Wedged between Russia, Prussia and Austria, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth faced extinction in the 18th century.
Catherine the Great
In 1773, writes A. Lentin, the radical philosophe paid a difficult visit to his patroness in St Petersburg.
Catherine’s cordial relations with the greatest thinkers of her day were no mistake, writes A. Lentin, but an integral part of her statecraft.
Tony Brenton tells of the clandestine correspondence between the future Catherine the Great and the British Ambassador to St Petersburg over eleven months from July 1756.
Simon Henderson places a key figure into the context of modern Russian history.
Isabel de Madariaga looks at the personality and achievement of the controversial Empress of Russia.
Tony Lentin gives an upgraded assessment of Russia's empress 200 years after her death.