Pakistan

Jinnah reads a copy of the Pakistani newspaper Dawn, published to  mark his 71st birthday,  25 December 1947.

Crisis-ridden Pakistan is a very different country from the one envisioned by its founder, Muhammad Ali Jinnah. 

Children from the Paljor Namgyal Girls’ School dig trenches against Chinese attack, October 1965.

When India and Pakistan gained independence from Britain in 1947, the region’s Princely States – including tiny Sikkim – became pawns in South Asia’s great power politics, as Andrew Duff explains.

Victory over the tribesmen on the North-west frontier of British India, writes James Lunt, is still commemorated by Sikh regiments.

Lucy Chester examines the processes by which the Indo-Pakistan border was drawn, dividing a single country into two.

M. Naeem Qureshi on a remnant of empire which has moved beyond being a mere repository of the Raj.

Vernon Hewitt on one of the bitterest legacies of partition.

Jean Alphonse Bernard considers the two key provinces and how they became touchstones and then powderkegs in the nationalist aspirations of both sides.

Francis Robinson considers what the Muslims wanted - and what they got - out of the decision to divide the subcontinent on religious lines.

The ability of Jinnah to unite a series of political expediencies with the popular appeal of Islam to demand a separate state for the Muslim people, has brought him the accolade 'the founder of Pakistan'.