From 'A Tour in Wales' by Thomas Pennant (1726-1798).

Historical facts about the Druids are few, yet this very lack of tangible evidence has allowed their image to be reworked and appropriated by the English, Irish, Scots and Welsh for over 500 years.

Summit of Rigi-Kulm, Switzerland, c.1900.

The 1,200 square miles of mountains that make up the Alps have been both frontier and a venue for fun.

 © Bridgeman Images.

Attempts to unify a diverse continent require subtlety and respect. 

There is beauty to be had from the smallest of objects. In the 18th century, tweezers, toothpicks and clippers became the signs of a polite, and beautiful, society.

A comprehensive account of the man who split western Christendom for good.

Long before today’s project for a European political and economic union, William Penn, the English founder of Pennsylvania, offered a utopian vision of a Europe beyond the nation state, as Peter Schröder explains. 

Winston Churchill waves to crowds in Whitehall, May 8th, 1945.

In using Churchill to justify his Brexit campaign, Boris Johnson 'paints a barbarically simplified and ill-informed picture of what Churchill stood for'.

Traditional cartographical representative of the Empire as a patchwork, in contrast to other, supposedly unified, European states

The millennium-long history of the Holy Roman Empire has been wilfully misunderstood since the rise of the nation state. But can its past shed light on Europe’s future? 

Holy Alliance 1815, contemporary engraving of the agreement of September 26th, 1815.

Following Napoleon’s defeat at Waterloo, France’s Bourbon monarchy was restored. It was the first, fragile step in a diminished state’s return to the family of European nations.

Michael D. Biddiss profiles a British theorists's claims that all the greatest triumphs of civilization and culture were the products of race—and of a single race at that.