Europe

Attempts to unify a diverse continent require subtlety and respect. 

There is beauty to be had from the smallest of objects. In the 18th century, tweezers, toothpicks and clippers became the signs of a polite, and beautiful, society.

A comprehensive account of the man who split western Christendom for good.

Long before today’s project for a European political and economic union, William Penn, the English founder of Pennsylvania, offered a utopian vision of a Europe beyond the nation state, as Peter Schröder explains. 

In using Churchill to justify his Brexit campaign, Boris Johnson 'paints a barbarically simplified and ill-informed picture of what Churchill stood for'.

The millennium-long history of the Holy Roman Empire has been wilfully misunderstood since the rise of the nation state. But can its past shed light on Europe’s future? 

Following Napoleon’s defeat at Waterloo, France’s Bourbon monarchy was restored. It was the first, fragile step in a diminished state’s return to the family of European nations.

Michael D. Biddiss profiles a British theorists's claims that all the greatest triumphs of civilization and culture were the products of race—and of a single race at that.

The crisis in Ukraine has revealed to the world the divisions that exist throughout Europe about how the Second World War is remembered. Gareth Pritchard and Desislava Gancheva look at the controversial debate around wartime collaboration.

An introduction by Geoffrey Parker on the European Witch-craze of the 16th and 17th centuries.