The teeming metropolis was once an undeveloped natural bay which became the site of a battle between Portugal and France for control of the New World.

Poor and small, Portugal was at the edge of late medieval Europe. But its seafarers created the age of ‘globalisation’, which continues to this day, as Roger Crowley explains.

In a continent dedicated to republicanism, writes George Woodcock, the Braganza dynasty for eighty years guided the destinies of Brazil.

Roderick Barman examines the circumstances surrounding Brazil’s entry into the Great War and appraises the conflict’s legacy on the developing nation.

William Gardener investigates the history of American flora and finds among its contributions to the health and happiness of Europe the not inconsiderable commodities of maize, the potato, rubber, tobacco, and quinine.

The San Paulo Railway, funded with money from the City of London, was one of the engineering marvels of the Victorian age, says David Gelber.

C.R. Boxer recalls “the time of the Flemings” (Tempo dos Flamengos), as the period of the Dutch occupation of Pernambuco province in Brazil used to be called.

Derek Severn recounts how, in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, a priest from Bohemia served the Society of Jesus in the more remote parts of Brazil and Peru.

In 1963 the great and prolific historian Charles Boxer created a stir when he published the seemingly innocuously entitled Race Relations in the...

N.P. Macdonald explains how modern Brazil owes its extensive frontiers, and the discovery of many of its natural riches, to the journeys far inland, in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, of pioneers in search of slaves.