Volume 59 Issue 4 April 2009

On April 27th, 1509, the Pope attempted to restrict the power of Venice.

Troops under the command of Brigadier-General Reginald Dyer killed hundreds of unarmed demonstrators on 13 April 1919.

St George only gained popularity in England in the 15th century and Richard the Lionheart had nothing to do with it.

Tristram Hunt describes how Friedrich Engels financed the research behind his friend Karl Marx’s epic critique of the free market, Das Kapital.

A history of the country’s love affair with the cherry blossom.

Patricia Fara recounts the moving story of a gifted contemporary of Isaac Newton who came to symbolise the frustrations of generations of female scientists denied the chance to fulfil their talents.

Editor Paul Lay introduces the April 2009 issue of History Today magazine.

White South Africans who fought in the long ‘Border War’ to maintain apartheid now find themselves in a country run by their former enemies. Gary Baines examines their continuing struggle to come to terms with the conflict and their efforts to have their voices heard.

In the first millennium, Christianity spread east from Palestine to Iraq, and on to India and China, becoming a global religion accepting of, and accepted by, other faiths. But with the Mongol invasions of the 13th century, Christianity’s eastern journey came to an end. Philip Jenkins recovers this lost history.

Suzannah Lipscomb looks beyond the stereotypes that surround our most infamous monarch to ask: who was Henry VIII and when did it all go wrong? 

As Europe polarised between Right and Left in the 1930s, many artists and authors nailed their reputations to either extreme. Others, says Nigel Jones, took refuge in the ‘inner emigration’ of silence. Even in stable Britain, writers felt compelled to take a stand – often in the service of the secret state.

The life of a most pious Christian saint, who died on April 21st, 1109.

As a new exhibition on the Baroque opens at the Victoria and Albert Museum, Joanna Norman looks at this age of magnificence.

Spurred into action by the false presumptions of Thomas Carlyle, the antiquarian Edward FitzGerald sought to piece together the momentous events of June 14th, 1645, reports Martin Marix Evans.

André Gill fearlessly lampooned the French rulers of his day in a series of masterly caricatures that would later inspire the creators of Spitting Image and many others. Mark Bryant examines his work.

There have been other books on this subject in recent years but none, I think, quite so packed with names. With a bibliography extending over 1 5...