Volume 38 Issue 11 November 1988

George Watson examines the changing meaning of the term from Machiavelli to Lenin.

Richard Cavendish looks at the impact of soap king Lord Leverhulme on the foundation of Port Sunlight.

Melanie Billings-Yun investigates President Eisenhower's motives and methods in the spring of 1954, when French collapse in Indochina brought pressures for direct American intervention against Communism.

Peter Clarke looks at the memory of the influential economist

John Crossland looks at the impact of statesman and soldier Kemal Ataturk, the founder of modern Turkey.

Brian Holden Reid opens our two-headed debate on the American Civil War by arguing that the South failed to use revolutionary methods to full advantage.

Andrew Roach explores the Romanian struggle for nationhood

Ann Hills discusses publications by the Ordnance Survey

Melanie Yun on life for a First World War prisoner in a German mine.