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Volume 31 Issue 9 September 1981

Taking the waters became a Victorian passion and spa towns flourished. In this article the first prize winner in History Today's Essay Competition Pamela Steen, a student at the Open University, describes the pleasure and the pains of this fashion.

Ian Duffield looks at the invisibility of black people in histories of Britain.

Ian Bradley shows that the characters and plots of Gilbert and Sullivan's operas reveal much that is of interest to the historian about certain individuals and institutions of the Victorian era.

William Hogarth's representations of black people in the 18th century.

British-Russian rivalry over the control of Persia had, by the beginning of the twentieth century, a long history. Donald Ewalt shows how this conflict was greatly intensified by the discovery of oil and a growing realisation of its importance.

The August 1981 edition of History Today was a special issue about the history of black people in Britain.

Barbara Bush looks at the experience of black people in 1930s Britain.

Maggie Black continues her seasonal history of food and popular culture with a look at this period of autumnal celebration at Harvest End.

Paul Edwards traces the leading black figures of the period.

James Walvin looks at attitudes to black people in the context of slavery

Irene Coltman Brown provides an insight into Tocqueville, who, reflecting on the history of revolutionary France, thought that liberty alone was capable of struggling successfully against revolution.

During the sixteen years of Portugal's first Republic there were forty-five governments. Douglas Wheeler shows how this turbulent period of parliamentary rule gave birth to the Estado Novo (the New State), Europe's longest surviving authoritarian system of the twentieth century.

J.L. Pimlott looks at Military Administration and the Historian.

Paul Edwards profiles two black men who settled in 18th Century Britain.

Ziggi Alexander and Audrey Dewjee consider the life of a remarkable Victorian woman.