Issue 36 March 2000

Why did infant mortality rates remain so high in the last quarter of the 19th century, when general death rates experienced a steady decline? Phil Chapple investigates.

Stewart MacDonald introduces the humanist scholar whose writings made him one of the most significant figures of 16th-century Europe.  

How should we interpret the Bolshevik Revolution, in the light of later events? Michael Lynch explains the issues with which we have to grapple and gives tips on how to impress the examiners.

William Doyle discusses traditional and revisionist interpretations of the downfall of the Kings of France, arguing that notions of a 'desacralised monarchy' are inadequate to explain what happened.

Many have seen the Restoration of the monarchy, which took place on 29 May 1660, as inevitable. Yet what is most surprising is its unexpectedness.

Richard Wilkinson argues that, for all his faults, a case can be made for the aloof aristocrat at the Foreign Office in 1900-1905.

Peter Clements assesses why two nations which seemingly had so much in common at the beginning of the 1930s were at war with each other by the end of the decade.