Gerald of Wales, Part II: 1188-1223
J.J.N. McGurk describes how Gerald’s later years were filled with his excellent books on Wales and his unsuccessful struggle for a bishopric.
The reign of Henry II was as important a landmark in Welsh history as it had been in that of Irish history, but, as in Ireland, the Norman conquest of Wales had not been complete; the marcher lords’ settlements and the various incursions had not materially altered the institutional Celtic framework of either church or state.
New elements of speech and customs had been introduced especially in the more penetrable south and east where contact with England had been closest. While the introduction of territorial bishoprics roughly corresponded to the tribal principalities of Gwynedd, Powys, Dyfed and Morgannwg, with sees at Bangor, St Asaph, St David’s, and Llandaff, the delimiting of the boundaries of these sees gave rise to keen controversy, particularly between the claims of St David’s and Llandaff.