Feature Violent Ends Early modern methods of execution were carefully calculated to inflict shame upon the condemned. Una McIlvenna | Published in History Today Volume 72 Issue 8 August 2022 The Large Miseries of War: Execution on the Wheel, by Jacques Callot, 1633. BTEU/RKMLGE/Alamy To continue reading this article you will need to purchase access to the online archive. Buy Online Access Buy Print & Archive Subscription If you have already purchased access, or are a print & archive subscriber, please ensure you are logged in. Please email firstname.lastname@example.org if you have any problems.