Attempts to unify a diverse continent require subtlety and respect. 

There is beauty to be had from the smallest of objects. In the 18th century, tweezers, toothpicks and clippers became the signs of a polite, and beautiful, society.

In the third of our occasional series in which leading historians tell the story of major historical events with reference to the History Today archive, Bridget Heal offers an account of the man who split western Christendom for good.

The 19th is the most Janus-faced of centuries. The 100 years that separated the devastation of the Napoleonic Wars from the industrialised killing...

Long before today’s project for a European political and economic union, William Penn, the English founder of Pennsylvania, offered a utopian vision of a Europe beyond the nation state, as Peter Schröder explains. 

In his 2014 radio series, Germany: Memories of a Nation...

In using Churchill to justify his Brexit campaign, Boris Johnson 'paints a barbarically simplified and ill-informed picture of what Churchill stood for'.

The millennium-long history of the Holy Roman Empire has been wilfully misunderstood since the rise of the nation state. But can its past shed light on Europe’s future? 

Few historians could be better qualified to write this book than the author. Born in Berlin, losing his father on the Eastern Front in the Second...

Following Napoleon’s defeat at Waterloo, France’s Bourbon monarchy was restored. It was the first, fragile step in a diminished state’s return to the family of European nations.