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Sigismund III

King of Poland (r.1587-1632) and Sweden (r.1592- 99). He desired a permanent union of Sweden and Poland, but was deposed in Sweden by the future Charles IX. His attempts to regain his Swedish throne caused deep enmity. He was distracted from them by his intervention in Russia (1610-12) during the Time of Troubles, and while he was engaged in war with the Turks in 1629, Gustavus II Adolphus conquered Riga and most of Polish Livonia.

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