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Former British African colony, embracing Northern Rhodesia (a protectorate in 1924 and part of the Central African Federation from 1953 to 1963) and the colony of Southern Rhodesia (self-governing from 1923 and also a member of the federation). It was named for Cecil Rhodes. Northern Rhodesia became independent as Zambia in 1964. Ian Smith, prime minister of Southern Rhodesia, made a unilateral declaration of independence in 1965 in an attempt to preserve white minority rule, provoking economic sanctions. After a period of civil war, white rule ended and Rhodesia became independent in 1980 as Zimbabwe.

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