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Indo-Pakistan wars

Three wars between India and Pakistan over the sovereignty of Kashmir (1947-49, 1965 and 1971). On the British withdrawal from India in 1947, the Hindu maharajah of Kashmir opted to join India, without consulting his mainly Muslim subjects, who rebelled. Pakistani forces occupied the western third of Kashmir, India the remainder. The United Nations-brokered 1949 cease-fire provided for a plebiscite on the future of Kashmir, but this has never been held. The 1965 war saw fighting in the Punjab and Kashmir. Russian mediation persuaded the rival armies to withdraw. The 1971 war involved clashes in East and West Pakistan and the transformation of East Pakistan into independent Bangladesh. Tension on the border remains high as India accuses Pakistan of supplying and training separatist forces. India has nuclear capability and Pakistan is thought to have developed it in the 1990s.

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