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Fourth caliph, the cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad. He took part in most of the campaigns that established Islam in Arabia, and acted as secretary to Muhammad. After the Prophet's death he initially opposed the succession of Abu Bakr, but retired from public life until invited by the Umayyads to be caliph after the death of Uthman. Following the rebellion of Muawiya, Ali was deposed. Murdered in 660, he became the figurehead of the Shiite Muslims.

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