This month marks half a century of an independent Botswana. The intervening years have not been without turmoil, but the country has emerged, writes Stephen Chan, as a model African state.

After the kidnapping of Moroccan revolutionary Mehdi Ben Barka in 1965, the fingers of blame pointed in several directions. The details of what happened are still not known.

A photograph of a released political prisoner prompts Roger Hudson to survey Ghana’s postcolonial history. 

Seconded to central Africa following the outbreak of the Second World War, John Cadbury became a master of logistics in one of the world’s toughest environments, as David Birmingham reveals. 

A multiracial community of activists began organising public meetings and rallies in the 1930s, paving the way for the Pan-African Congress of 1945, writes Daniel Whittall.

Rhodesia’s white minority government declared unilateral independence from the UK in 1965, gaining covert support from France, Britain’s colonial rival in Africa, as Joanna Warson explains.

Michael Langley describes how Park’s second journey of exploration down the River Niger was ended by his mysterious death at Bussa.

First a French, then a British colony, these remote and beautiful islands are being gradually drawn into the modern world, writes J. Coen.

Many missionary hopes in Africa were disappointed, writes W.F. Rea, but Livingstone and his colleagues achieved some successes along the Zambezi river.

After 1807, writes A.J.H. Latham, a Liverpool merchant and a Nigerian chieftain both profited from the palm-oil trade.