Who's Who


Robert MuchembledTranslated by Jean Birrell
Polity Press   224pp   £17.99 ISBN 978 0745 638768

Glyn Redworth
Oxford University Press   288pp   £16.99ISBN 978 0199 533534Today, at the Tyburn convent near Marble
Arch, nuns pray over the remains of Roman Catholic priests executed
during the Reformation period. Catholics regard these as holy relics
and the priests as martyrs, butchered by a persecuting Protestant
state. This biography tells the story of a woman who helped gather such
relics, smuggling the corpses of those who died for their faith in
Jacobean England.

Mark Bryant on the work of Soviet cartoonists engaged in the epic struggle against Nazi Germany.

A selection of readers' correspondence.

In his twenties, Philippe Maurice was sentenced to death by guillotine for murdering a policeman. Saved by a change of government, he transformed himself through prison study into one of France’s leading medieval historians. William Smith reports.

John Shepherd looks back to the turbulent Winter of Discontent, which heralded the demise of James Callaghan’s Labour government and paved the way for Margaret Thatcher and eighteen years of unbroken Conservative rule.

The visually spectacular Scottish capital witnessed fierce dynastic struggle before it welcomed the spirit of the Enlightenment, as Patricia Cleveland-Peck discovers.

The popular image of Socrates as a man of immense moral integrity was largely the creation of his pupil Plato. If we examine evidence of his trial, argues Robin Waterfield, a different picture emerges, of a cunning politician opposed to Athenian democracy.

Michael Dunne reflects on past US presidential Inaugurals, and the words which still resonate.

Terry Brown explores the arborial legacy of a penny-pinching duke.

Richard Wilkinson reviews a book on the history of the English Civil Wars.

Hannah Boston explains how a single piece of evidence contributes to a wider understanding.

Robert Pearce attempts to put the Prime Minister of 1970-74 into historical perspective.

By positioning him firmly within the changing context of his times, Lucy Wooding sees coherence in Henry VIII’s religious policies.

Clive Pearson assesses the Soviet dictator’s war record.

Michael Morrogh shows that Renaissance men like Sir Walter Ralegh had a decidedly darker side.

R.E. Foster emphasises the threat to Elizabeth’s regime.

Mark Rathbone asks why the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia emerged in the 1850s as the likely unifier of Italy.

Richard Hughes lends us the benefit of his expertise.

Richard Wilkinson questions the motives of important historical figures, and of historians writing about them.

Rowena Hammal explains why the United Provinces enjoyed a ‘Golden Age’ in the first half of the Seventeenth Century.

Graham Goodlad assesses the conduct of British foreign policy in the era of the Congress system.

Graham Noble assesses the significance of one of the earliest Marian Martyrs.

The head of Japan's Second World War government was executed on Dec 23, 1948

York Membery looks back to the crunch 1920s election which saw the party of Gladstone narrowly pushed into third place – a position from which it has never recovered.

Nigel Watson reports the decision to keep Cornwall’s telecommunications operation going after all.

When US astronauts were blown away by their first view of Earth from space, forty years ago this month, the moment re-energized One World ideals of unity and peace, writes Robert Poole, even as the Cold War raged.

Mark Bryant looks at the cartoons produced in response to the conflict which followed the Opium Wars between China and the West.

Liz Homans looks back over the long campaign to remove the death penalty from the statute book in Britain.

 Alastair Bonnett investigates the intriguing and often controversial history of African Native Americans – black Indians – in the light of present-day concerns about citizenship.

Today a Documentation Centre stands on the site of the former Nazi party rally grounds in Nuremberg. Neil Gregor reflects on the city council’s response to the neo-Nazi revival of the 1960s.

In the event Spain and Portugal divided almost all of South America between, them but in the sixteenth century the French also had commercial and colonial ambitions in Brazil. Robert Knecht tells the stories of two French expeditions that ended in disaster.

 Whether or not mothers should nurse their own children has been a subject of debate from Ancient Egypt, Greece and Rome through all of modern European history to the present day. Paul Doolan reviews the arguments that have been presented over the centuries and the way in which fashions have changed.

Frances Borzello seeks to explain the rise of women’s clubs in London before the First World War – and their equally swift demise.

At the end of the First World War, the British monarchy sought to strengthen bonds across the English-speaking world. Frank Prochaska discusses the ambassadorial role played by Edward, Prince of Wales, in the United States.

Lucy Winstanley describes an unusual cemetery of the 1914-18 War, the burial place of Chinese workers who joined the Allied forces in the war against the Kaiser.

 Nazi Germany in the Second World War

 The pre-human history of the earth in the Romantic era

The Dowager Empress of China, Tzu-hsi, died on November 15th, 1908, after ruling China for almost fifty years.

450 years ago this month, the young Elizabeth became queen of England. Norman Jones looks at evidence from the state papers, newly available online from Cengage, to show how those close to her viewed the challenges faced in the early days by Elizabethan England.

After 1918 the myth was created that the German army only lost the war because it had been ‘stabbed in the back’ by defeatists and revolutionaries on the Home Front. Alexander Watson reviews the clear evidence that in reality it simply lost the will to go on fighting.

Trea Martyn describes how urban living and a historical oasis in the capital inspired her interest in garden history, and in Elizabethan gardens in particular.

Jeremy Black discusses how changing military and propaganda needs have influenced cartographers over the last 150 years.

Dionysios Stathakopoulos surveys the history of the Byzantine Empire from its foundation in 324 to its conquest in 1453.

Elizabeth Gaskell wrote Mary Barton, her novel about working-class life in Manchester, 160 years ago. It was written from the heart, says Sue Wilkes, even though it angered the mill-owners who were her personal friends.

Reconciliation is not following in the wake of the search for truth about the past in one fomer Warsaw Pact country, Colin Graham reports.

On the centenary of her election as Britain’s first female mayor, Andrew Mackay looks at the life of Elizabeth Garrett Anderson.

Tony Chafer examines the paradoxes and complexities that underlie belated recognition of the contribution of African soldiers to the liberation of France in 1944.

Kathryn Hadley discusses the fate of several villages destroyed in the First World War, now on military territory usually inaccessible to the public.

Alan Sharp looks at the factors shaping national policies in the weeks preceding the Paris Peace Conference, when the failure of the victorious allies to agree on aims and a process for negotiations with the Germans resulted in a ‘tragedy of disappointment’.

Mark Bryant examines the wartime work of Captain Bruce Bairnsfather, creator of the famous ‘Old Bill’ character.

Putting the Manorial Documents Register online creates a major resource for historians, reports Sarah Charlton as the project is extended to Berkshire and Buckinghamshire.

Ian Ronayne describes how the Channel Island was torn in the First World War between its role as potato producer and its patriotic duty to send men to fight.

More than 900 people perished in the Jonestown mass suicide of November 18th 1978.

To understand why Americans believe their nation to be innocent of imperialism we must go back to the Founding Fathers of the Republic, says Graham MacPhee.

Derry Nairn examines the wealth of online resources available for engaging with Military History.

A selection of readers' correspondence.

Today’s obsession with 18th-century femmes fatales distorts the history of women, says Hannah Greig.

Neil Taylor discusses how political change has left its mark on the Latvian capital’s Town Hall Square. 

The famed radio broadcast of HG Wells' War of the Worlds took place on October 30th, 1938.

John Paul II was elected on October 16th, 1978. He was the first non-Italian pope to be elected in four centuries.

An exotic London theatre funded the building of the first Eddystone lighthouse. Alison Barnes has discovered what kind of shows it staged.

To coincide with ‘Cold War Modern’, a major new exhibition at the V & A in London, its consultant curator, David Crowley of the Royal College of Art, looks back on the 1959 Kennedy-Khrushchev ‘Kitchen Debate’ and explores how modern design became an active part of that war.

Patricia Cleveland-Peck visits Tempelhof which is about to close for ever as an airport.

Daniel Beer looks at how much Soviet labour camps owed to the theories of Russian liberals on crime, its causes and how to treat it.

Nick Pelling suggests that credit should go not to the Netherlands but much further south to Catalonia.

Pressure in the nineteenth century to introduce artificial lighting was as much about enhancing privacy as about reducing crime, according to Chris Otter.

Elizabeth Stephens examines how the surprise invasion of Israel by Egypt and its allies started the process that led to Camp David.

Ian Mortimer, who has been an archivist and a poet before becoming a medieval historian and biographer, describes why a blend of empathy and evidence is the key to getting the most out of history.

Simon Dixon has enjoyed a new biography of the ‘Sun King’.

Viv Sanders takes issue with some all too common assumptions.

Michael Morrogh sees value in historical films, despite their evident imperfections.

F.G. Stapleton introduces the ‘weather vane ideology’.

Graham Noble separates fact from Tudor propaganda.

Richard Wilkinson recreates the contest that marked, and marred, the British war effort in 1914-18.

Russel Tarr introduces the new International Baccalaureate, assessing its advantages and disadvantages compared with A Levels.

Graham Goodlad reviews the controversial career of William Pitt the Elder, whose ascendancy coincided with Britain’s involvement in the Seven Years’ War.

R. E. Foster puts the dissolution of the monasteries into historical context.

John Spiller assesses James I’s impact on the Puritans and the Puritans’ impact on James I.

Robert Pearce investigates the career of the Third Reich’s ‘evil genius’.

Mark Rathbone analyses the causes and consequences of sudden changes of policy in nineteenth-century British politics.

 Andrew Robinson enjoys an original blend of art history and history of science in this exploration of the medieval origins of the Renaissance.

 Benjamin Ziemann is impressed by an innovative general history of the Nazi era.

Jeremy Isaacs, the producer of The World at War and Cold War, reviews the changing nature of historical documentaries made for the small screen, and their reception by academics.

Mark Bryant describes how a nosey parker drew some inspiration from Old Nosey’s career.

Puritan souls may hide a cavalier approach to clothes, according to Patrick Little as he explores fashion at the court of Oliver Cromwell.

Gabriel Ronay revisits the story of a Crown Prince’s suicide pact with his mistress and finds the evidence clearly pointing to murder. 

Zephie Begolo discusses the symbolic power of the veil in Iranian politics, and its consequences for women, before and during the Islamic Revolution.

Steve Morewood investigates Anthony Eden’s frenetic diplomatic efforts to forge a Balkan front to save Greece from Nazi Germany and the controversies that resulted from his failed mission.

Asa Briggs, author of the monumental five-volume history of the BBC, talks to David Hendy about his thirty-seven year engagement with the story of British broadcasting.

Neil Cossons describes how factory methods gave rise to a worldwide marketplace.

Hugh Williams describes how he and his colleagues set about compiling a list of fifty significant ‘things’ that have helped to shape Britain and the British.

Tony Brenton tells of the clandestine correspondence between the future Catherine the Great and the British Ambassador to St Petersburg over eleven months from July 1756.

Richard Cavendish charts the events leading up to King Zog I's coronation on September 1st, 1928.

Anthea Gerrie describes a museum that is also in itself a historical record of a city’s development.

The agreement permitting Germany's annexation of the Sudetenland was signed on Sept 29, 1938.

Peter Furtado reports on new developments.

Chris Aspin recalls the career of a man who gave a new word to the language.

Alex Goodall looks back at the career of one of the shadiest agents ever hired by the FBI in its hundred-year history.

When The People’s War was published in 1969 on the thirtieth anniversary of the outbreak of the Second World War, it set a gold standard for Home Front studies that has never been equalled. It has remained in print ever since, read for nearly forty years by those who remembered and those who never knew.

 Excavations at Whithorn Priory in south-west Scotland have revealed a hitherto unknown settlement of Norse origin dating from AD 950-1100.

Roger Moorhouse examines a title on the 872-day German siege of the Russian city.

Graham Gendall Norton reviews the tale of an Archduke during the break up of the Habsburgs, which, he says, offers food for thought to the European Union.

Correspondence with the editor.

Rebecca Abrams discovers the history of a forgotten Aberdonian doctor who could – if anyone had listened to his ideas  – have saved the lives of countless women in childbirth over the following centuries.

Mark Bryant looks at the cartoons that adorned one of the Nazis’ most reviled newspapers.

Lucy Riall explores the social and political issues in Italy following the country’s unification. She shows how these issues became the focus for a dynamic new artistic movement of the 1890s, Divisionism, a forerunner to Futurism and the subject of a current exhibition at the National Gallery.

Martin Pugh argues that life during the interwar years was brighter than has often been suggested, in spite of its association with economic depression and the rise of Fascism.

Andrew Watts has investigated the archives of the Cambridge examination syndicate to uncover the history of school exams.

Mark Juddery examines the impact and appeal of the film that has sold more tickets at the US box office than any other.

Jean-François Mouhot traces a link between climate change and slavery, and suggests that reliance on fossil fuels has made slave owners of us all.

Michael Simmons draws on many years experience of living in, and reporting from, central Europe to look back at the upheavals in Czechoslovakia of 1968.

Robert Knecht describes the shortcomings of Henry III, the last Valois king, and the circumstances that led him to become the first – but not the last – French monarch to die at the hands of one of his subjects.

The Cold War has become this year’s hot media topic. Taylor Downing welcomes the chance to look more critically at the era of ‘mutually assured destruction’.

The emperor Hadrian presided over the Roman empire at its height, defined its borders and was one of the most cultured rulers of the ancient world. Neil Faulkner revisits his legacy, as the British Museum opens a major exhibition on his life and times.

York Membery visits the capital of Bavaria and explores the historic heart of this twenty-first century metropolis – and its annual beer festival.

John Hanning Speke discovered the source of the Nile on August 3rd, 1858.

Aug 27 1928

Richard Cavendish remembers what now appears the most brittle of peace pacts.

Aug 15, 1308

Jacqui Livesey unmasks the cleric who revealed Lord Nelson and Lady Hamilton’s most intimate secrets.

Peter Furtado joins the celebrations of the Victorian Society as it commemorates half a century of defending the country’s nineteenth-century heritage.

Tobias Grey meets the journalist who was at Charles de Gaulle’s side for twenty-six years.

Peter Furtado reflects on this issue and his time as Editor of History Today.

 In 1909 Beatrice Webb produced a controversial report which proposed abolishing the stigma and penury of the Poor Law and its workhouses. James Gregory argues that this plea for a less judgemental approach to poverty created the foundations of the modern Welfare State.

Bill Wallace looks at the anniversary of the Prague Spring in 1968.

 Nigel Jones explores a book on a First World War poet.

Jeremy Black reviews two books on military history, ancient and modern.

Bridget McGing describes the fascinating but heart breaking task of working with her mother on the family archive, before it was too late.

Mark Bryant examines the history of the Second World War’s favorite cartoon pin-up.

Charles II was the only king of England for two hundred years to survive exile and return to power. Anna Keay considers how he kept up his regal appearances whilst in exile, paving the way for his return to the throne.

In 1909 Beatrice Webb produced a controversial report which proposed abolishing the stigma and penury of the Poor Law and its workhouses. James Gregory argues that this plea for a less judgemental approach to poverty created the foundations of the modern Welfare State.

A public falling-out ended the close political friendship between two leaders of reform in early nineteenth-century Britain. A familiar scenario? Penny Young tells the story.

Historians have long argued whether the years 1500-1700 saw a revolutionary change in the art and organization of war. Jeremy Black reports.

As you prepare to ‘cover up’ on the beach this summer, lie back and enjoy Robert Mighall’s true history of sunbathing.

Nicholas Orme asks what sense medieval English people had of the land they lived in, and what ancient sites and natural wonders did they visit.

Richard Sugg searches history to explain the phenomenon of aggressive cannibalism, following recent allegations from Iraq.

Asya Chorley describes the relationship between China, Britain and Tibet in the early twentieth century, and shares the unique experiences of the first European women to be invited to Lhasa by the XIII Dalai Lama.

Clive Foss enjoys the architecture of Cuba’s capital, with varied elements from every era of its past making an exotic mix.

John Logie Baird gave the first demonstration of a colour television transmission on July 3rd, 1928.

Tsar Nicholas II and his family were murdered on July 17th, 1918.

Nigel Watson recalls a mysterious explosion that occurred in deepest Siberia in June 1908.

Sean Kingsley describes how hi-tech marine archaeology off the Atlantic coast of Georgia in the US has thrown a new light on the world of snake-oil salesmen.

Anthony Johnson argues that an accurate interpretation of the great monument rests in the sophisticated geometric principles employed by its Neolithic surveyors.

 Tibet, the ‘Forbidden Land’ ever since 1793 when it banned foreigners from entering, has long been an object of fascination, perhaps to Britons especially, since Colonel Francis Younghusband forced his way to Lhasa in 1904.

Graham Walker looks at how history and sport are interwoven in the sectarian rivalry between Celtic and Rangers football clubs.

The Mongolian past has been drawn by both sides into twentieth-century disputes between Russia and China, writes J.J. Saunders.

 One of the most popular ways in which to view the history of the modern world is through the prism of colonialism, writes David Day.

Peter Linebaugh finds inspiration in the worldwide and timeless assertion of common rights, expressed in Magna Carta.

Mark Bryant examines how cartoonists saw the most traumatic years of American history.

James Barker reveals how parsimony and muddle in Whitehall in the first years of the British Mandate in Palestine almost led to disaster in August 1929.

Edward Said’s controversial book is now thirty years old. A new exhibition of Orientalist paintings at Tate Britain provides a timely opportunity to revisit its argument, says Kamran Rastegar.

Kenneth Fincham and Nicholas Tyacke look at the ways ordinary people responded to  religious changes within their places of worship from the Reformation to the Restoration.

Nick Baron reads the memoirs of an independently-minded Ulsterman involved in the British intervention in North Russia, 1918-19.

As Scotland celebrates five hundred years of printing, Martin Moonie’s investigations into the earliest printed books in Scots leads him on a trail to Paris.

Stephen Brumwell examines how the death of a charismatic young British officer 250 years ago this month – and the involvement of his two younger brothers in subsequent military operations in North America – had a lasting impact on Anglo-American history.

The Territorial Army, currently celebrating its centenary, has had a constant struggle to survive – and never more so than today, says Ian Beckett.

Anthony Aveni explains how the people planning great monuments and cities, many millennia and thousands of miles apart, so often sought the same inspiration – alignments with the heavens.

The treaties that ended the first part of the second Opium War were signed on June 26th and 27th, 1858.

Robert Kennedy was assassinated on June 6th, 1968, in Los Angeles, California.

June 22nd, 1258

David Winter visits a land beset for millennia by the fantasies of outsiders.

One of the great – but relatively ignored – atrocities of the twentieth century was the rape of Nanjing (formerly Nanking) by the Japanese Imperial Army in early December 1937, during which some 200,000 Chinese were massacred and perhaps another 20,000 raped.

Mari Takayanagi, archivist at the Parliamentary Archives, explains the significance of the Life Peerages Act,1958.

Roger Moorhouse visits a unique archive of diaries from German history

Corinne Julius visits a new gallery of jewels at the V&A to see what sparkle they add to our understanding of history.

Recently the prime minister has urged soldiers to wear their uniform proudly even when off-duty, and there certainly seems to be an attempt to foster civic pride in the military, with regiments returning from Iraq or Afghanistan parading through the streets, to be greeted by flag-waving shoppers.

The founder of the Carthusian Order died on October 6th, 1101.

Jo Woolley and David Smurthwaite of the National Army Museum look at Desert Warfare in the Second World War and more widely.

‘God’s work more than ours’. In the first of three articles looking at the image of professional women at work, Anne Summers considers the tension between spiritual and material motivations in Victorian nursing and social reform.

A dream world, or a culture of style that carried within it the seeds of self-destruction? Roy Foster marks the high tide of the 18th-century’s Anglo-Irish elite.

For Sidney and Beatrice Webb, recording the struggles of early trade unionism - and subsidising its publication - were an integral part of their social commitment, by Chris Wrigley.

‘The high priest of eclectic beauty' - the output and interests of Frederic, Lord Leighton, make him a splendid representative of the cosmopolitan values and vitality in late-Victorian art.

Mark Holland samples the millions of pages of old newspapers now available online.

Clive Gamble revisits the moment at which archaeologists realized that human prehistory was far longer than biblical scholars had imagined; and links this to today’s debates about the antiquity of the human mind with its capacity for self-aware thought.   

Jim Downs says that the Democrats should blame history for the dilemma they face in having to choose between Clinton and Obama for this year’s presidential nomination.

Roger Howard asks how the discovery of oil affected relations between Britain and Persia in the early twentieth century.

David Abulafia, author of the newly published The Discovery of Mankind, considers Columbus’ first encounters with the indigenous peoples of the Caribbean, and shows how, in the flesh, newly discovered peoples challenged European preconceptions about what it meant to be human.

Manus McGrogan traces the radical posters that flowered on the walls of Paris in the spring of 1968, while a new exhibition at the Hayward Gallery in London offers a chance to see them.

Robert Gildea describes a new Europe-wide project to investigate the impact of 1968 and its sometimes bitter legacy.

Anthony Pagden describes how the conflict between Europe and Asia, which began over two millennia ago, hardened into an ideological, cultural and religious struggle between the West, which has always cast itself as free, and – despite frequent outbursts of religious fanaticism – secular, and an enslaved East governed not by the laws of man, but by the supposed laws of god.

The two dictators met on May 3rd, 1938.

Richard Cavendish charts the life of Robespierre, who was born on May 6th, 1758.

John Lawton visits the fabled cities of the Silk Road.

Edmund West looks at attitudes to deafness and the education of the hard of hearing, over the centuries.

York Membery visits the In Flanders Fields Museum in Ypres where a new exhibition demonstrates how many countries and cultures were bound up in the First World War.

 Happenings were the in-thing in the 1960s, and the late 1960s – 1968 specifically – are the in-thing at the moment: so much so that the BBC is devoting a daily programme to the sounds of the year, a degree of attention that it has not accorded even to equally crowded turning-points such as 1945 or 1989.

Adam Zamoyski’s latest book about his ancestral homeland tells of a brief, largely forgotten, exception to the melancholy catalogue of Polish defeats.

Martin Evans talks to Helen Dunmore, whose historical novels range from the worst horrors of twentieth-century warfare to the luxurious world of late Republican Rome.

Mark Bryant on cartoons of the man who shook Victorian society to the core.

How dangerous was life in the Middle Ages? Sean McGlynn gets to grips with the level of violent crime, and the sometimes cruel justice meted out to offenders.

International alarm over the terrorist threat is not new. Anthony Read relates how the appearance of Bolshevism created a state of near hysteria throughout the Western world.

Anthony Fletcher delves into the diaries of teenage girls in the Georgian and Victorian eras to explore the little-changing constraints, punishments and occasional delights of being brought up a girl in upper-class Britain before the Great War.

Forty years after Enoch Powell was sacked from the shadow cabinet by Conservative leader Ted Heath for his ‘Rivers of Blood’ speech, Robert Pearce investigates the fierce rivalry of two very different Conservatives.

Richard Stoneman investigates the strange but widely held belief in the Middle Ages, that Alexander the Great had conquered more than the land, taking to the air and travelled to the ocean depths.

As Fidel Castro finally hands over the reins of power after forty-nine years, Michael Simmons finds his country poised between past and future.

Many who supported the campaign for compulsory military service in Edwardian Britain saw it as a necessary measure against the threat of invasion and the shadow of German militarism. Others identified it as a valuable counter to ‘softness, indiscipline and unmanliness’ in young men of the period. Detractors, meanwhile, feared it could be used to overthrow the state. Tom Stearn describes the campaign, how it was received and what it achieved in the run up to the First World War.

Mary wedded Francis, Dauphin of France on April 24th, 1558.

The civil rights leader was shot dead on the balcony of the Lorraine Motel on April 4th, 1968.

Patricia Cleveland-Peck visits the capital of French Canada which is celebrating its 400th birthday this year

In 1908 the Olympic movement visited Britain for the first time. Stephen Halliday describes how the British Olympic Association prepared for the Games with barely two years notice.

Geoffrey Tyack remembers the renowned architectural historian who died on December 27th, 2007.

Charlotte Crow tells how a remarkable photographer will be celebrated in two exhibitions organized by the National Trust during Liverpool’s European Capital of Culture year.

Sue Donnelly introduces the archives of the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament, and a project to make them accessible to a wider audience.

 How should a society acknowledge the history of minority communities within its borders, particularly minorities that have suffered at the hands of the majority?

Continental chefs dominated London’s restaurant world in the nineteenth century, says Panikos Panayi.

Index of all the articles published in Volume 21, 1971.

Index of all the articles published in Volume: 22

Index of all the articles published in Volume: 23

Richard Wilkinson, our regular reviewer, has been reading books on the early modern and modern periods.

R. E. Foster explains the young Palmerston’s progress from Tory to Liberal.

Richard Hughes shows there is more of historical interest to William Prynne than his famous auditory organs.

Antonio Cazorla-Sanchez introduces a distinctive method of engaging with the past.

Peter Marshall asks how diligently Wolsey served his Church.

Ken Rise explains the process by which Hitler’s will became the law in Nazi Germany.

Amanda Forshaw advises how to approach ‘Themes’ units.

Robert Pearce asks why Labour’s period in office under Clement Attlee came to an end.

Mark Rathbone examines the importance of one Alabama town’s contribution to the civil rights movement.

Lessons from the Auschwitz Project. Robert Carr shares his experiences.

Michael Mullett introduces the life and work of a remarkable Protestant leader.

John Etty assesses the historical significance of one of the lesser known Tsars.

Index of all the articles published in Volume: 24

by Daniel Lord Smail

 Britain, America and the Victorian Origins of the Special Relationship

Banditry and the British in Early Nineteenth-Century India

Paddy Hartley describes how an interest in the treatment of facial injuries in the First World War led him to develop a new form of sculpture.

Mark Bryant introduces the man who drew the British Establishment at its most shockable.

Warmongering anti-semite, or constitutionalist and family man? Marc Morris takes a fresh look at the career of Edward I, whose reputation has suffered a roller-coaster ride over the centuries.

Ben Barkow and Klaus Leist describe the remarkable cultural activities of Philipp Manes an inmate of Theresienstadt, the Nazi ghetto in north-west Bohemia. Manes’ Lecture Series reflected the artistic and intellectual calibre of many of the inmates and brought stimulation and pleasure to many more. The authors ask to what extent this constituted a form of resistance.

Alan MacColl explores exactly what the word Britain meant, after the Romans had gone.

Criminal poisoning at once fascinated and terrified Victorian society. Here Ian Burney shows how the extraordinary case of a doctor, hanged in 1856 for allegedly poisoning an acquaintance, threw up deep-rooted anxieties about poison, detection, and professionalism in Victorian society.

Anthony Smith challenges the modernist view of nationalism that traces its origins to Revolutionary and post-Revolutionary Europe.

Between autumn 1855 and spring 1856, the attitude of Britain’s war leaders underwent bewildering change as their determination to bring the war with Russia to a desirable conclusion was buffeted by doubts about the commitment of the French, and fears about the motives of French policy, as Brian James reveals.

Britain’s concerns over binge drinking are nothing new says Luci Gosling, who describes how the brewing industry united to wreck Asquith’s Licensing Bill of 1908.

Nigel Saul investigates the building of Salisbury Cathedral, the Gothic masterpiece built in double-quick time.

Richard Cavendish marks a failed attempt on the Scottish and English thrones by the last Stuart pretender, on March 23rd, 1708.

Richard Cavendish remembers the events of March 4th, 1933

Chaplin's coffin was stolen from a Swiss cemetery on March 2nd, 1978.

The treaty that ended Russia's participation in the First World War was signed on March 3rd, 1918.

York Membery found much to savour when he paid a visit to the medieval town of Cortona for the Tuscan Sun Festival.

Patricia Cleveland-Peck finds out how family historians can research the lives of their ancestors in the fast-changing city of Shanghai.

Sixty-five years ago, the Nazis carried out one of their most spectacular atrocities in occupied France, destroying almost an entire quartier of Marseilles. John Gimlette pays a visit to Le Panier, and finds it still physically and emotionally scarred.

 History Today announces its awards for the best of 2007.

‘A week is a long time in politics’: the phrase is one of the enduring legacies of the Harold Wilson era. This month we report on our Annual Awards for 2007, and curiously two of our prize-winners wrote histories located in British cultural and political life of the 1960s, while the third is celebrated for his attempt to break free of the constraints of such short-term thinking.

Hugh Kearney reconsiders the models for and motives of Charles I's most controversial minister in 'John Bull's other island'.

Model of Christian kingship or brigand Dane made good? Eric Christiansen examines the enigma of Canute.

 BBC Sports Editor Mihir Bose explores a work on modern India.

 Daniel Snowman approaches two books on aspects of sexuality, including some uncomfortable reading.

Historian and film-maker Michael Wood recently visited Bristol Grammar School to talk about the BBC2 series The Story of India. Before the event began he was interviewed by sixth-form students Imogen Parkes and Nicholas Barrett; Oliver Chard transcribed the tape.

Cartoons can allow us to see ourselves as others see us, often uncomfortably. Mark Bryant looks at cartoons produced across Europe about Britain’s involvement in an unpopular war in South Africa at the turn of the twentieth century.

James Williamson, who was highly commended in the Royal Historical Society/History Today undergraduate dissertation prize 2006, asks whether accepting US economic support in the form of the European Recovery Programme, or Marshall Plan, in the postwar era caused Clement Attlee’s Labour government to water down its socialist agenda.

Janet Voke describes how fifty tons of gold were evacuated from Norway four hours ahead of the Nazi invasion in spring 1940.

Jason Burke describes how war correspondents benefit from a knowledge of history, and how history might benefit from their work in turn.

Peter J. Beck describes the work of Honoré Daumier, born 200 years ago this month, which provided an early visual documentary newsreel and commentary on the key political and social movements in mid-nineteenth century France.

Mark Knights and a team of colleagues introduce a new method of working for researchers and students.

Terry Jenkins explains why a failed assassination attempt on Napoleon III brought down the British government in 1858.

Charles Freeman explains why AD 381 was a defining moment in the history of European thought.

Jeremy Goldberg examines three stories of disputed marriages and discusses definitions of consent and how they impinged on a medieval woman’s right to marry when and whom she chose.

On February 6th, 1958, the BEA aircraft carrying the players and staff of Manchester United football team crashed shorlty after taking off at Munich airport. Richard Cavendish describes the accident.

Saint Marie-Bernarde Soubirous saw the first of her 18 "visions" in Lourdes on February 11th, 1858.

The Siege of Baghdad ended on February 10th 1258.

Peter Clark celebrates some of the ‘awkward squad’ associated with eastern England.

Peter Furtado previews a show of the British response to the Post-Impressionist view of modern life, at Tate Britain.

Peter Furtado welcomes an opportunity to discuss archaeology with the experts.

In the 400th anniversary of her death, the prominent Elizabethan is the focus of events in her native Derbyshire and elsewhere.

 Some jokes are so venerable they deserve a ‘History Today’ article to themselves.

Anthea Gerrie explores a remarkable excavation, a Roman surgeon’s house in Rimini.

Mark Bryant looks at the cartoons published in imperial Japan during the Second World War.

Glen Jeansonne and David Luhrssen describe how the pioneer aviator Charles Lindbergh was increasingly disturbed by the tension between technology and its impact on the environment. In his later career, in the 1960s, Lindbergh became a spokesman for the embryonic environmental movement as they describe here.

John Styles considers whether the fashion for wearing pocket-watches flourished among working men in the eighteenth century because it was stylish, because they needed to know the time accurately, or for some other reason.

Ian J. Bickerton and Kenneth J. Hagan argue that, contrary to Clausewitz’ view of war as a means for achieving political ends, the United States’ participation in military conflict has had unexpected results, and often has produced very different political outcomes to those originally intended.

Germany's new Chancellor took power on January 30th, 1933.

Gandhi was shot on January 30th, 1948, aged seventy-eight, by the Hindu fanatic Nathuram Godse.

The French Renaissance Court 1483-1589

Pompeii: The Life of a Roman Town

By Mary Beard, Profile Books 416pp £25ISBN 978 1861 975164

She also illuminates how Pompeii, since its rediscovery in the eighteenth century, has constituted a vital presence in the imaginative life of western culture. This part of her project is enhanced by the reproduction of numerous attractive nineteenth-century drawings and paintings; some depict the remains (which were often in a better condition than they are now), while others engagingly reconstruct scenes from ‘everyday life’ in the town.

Victoria would not even have come into the world but for Charlotte’s untimely death. The need for a legitimate

Yet if I had a pound for every time that someone asked me, with my professional classics hat

To anyone familiar with Tim Blanning’s previous work, this is the book he had to write. A scholar of impressive breadth, Blanning is at home in much of the political, military and cultural history of modern Europe, especially that of the German and French worlds during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, and his writings sparkle with the wit and wisdom of a man eager to share his intellectual passions.

First and foremost was sexual  radicalism: it had been his strong homosexual feelings, and the poetic language
Churchill’s Wizards
The British Genius for Deception 1914-1945
Nicolas Rankin
Faber   480pp   £25...
Hitler’s Empire
Nazi Rule in Occupied Europe
Mark Mazower
Allen Lane   768pp...
Making History Now and Then
David Cannadine
Palgrave Macmillan   416pp   £19.99
ISBN 9780230218895

Why History Matters
John Tosh
Palgrave Macmillan   192pp   £9.99
ISBN 9780230521483

Algeria: Anger of the Dispossessed


Martin Evans and John Phillips


Yale University Press 352pp £19.99


ISBN 978 0300108811

After the National Liberation Front ousted the French in 1962, and after more than a century of colonial rule, Algeria became the darling of the non-aligned movement in the 1960s and 1970s until political corruption and economic mismanagement triggered a descent into violence in the 1980s.

Barbarians to Angels
The Dark Ages Reconsidered
Peter Wells
Norton 256pp £15....
The Magnificent Monarch: Charles II and the Ceremonies of Power
 Anna Keay
Continuum   £25  319pp
ISBN  978-1847252258
The Long Parliament of Charles II
Annabel Patterson
Yale University Press   £30   304pp
I Believe in Yesterday
My Adventures in Living History
Tim Moore
Jonathan Cape...
The Intimate Life and Dauntless Spirit of Lady Desborough
Richard Davenport-Hines...
Downing Street Diary
With James Callaghan in No.10
Bernard Donoughue
Jonathan Cape   562pp   £30.00

World War Two: Behind Closed Doors. Stalin, the Nazis and the West

By Laurence Rees

BBC Books/Ebury Press   448pp  £20

ISBN 978 0563493358

Until Death Us Do Part
The Letters and Travels of Anna and Vitus Bering
Per Ulf Møller & Natasha Okhotina
* * * * *
Empires of the Indus
The Story of a River
Alice Albinia
John Murray   366pp   £20.00
ISBN 978 0 7195 6003 3

Kasia Boddy’s vivid and highly entertaining book traces the manner in which pugilism has been represented in Western culture from Homer’s Iliad of...

Britain since 1918
The Strange Career of British Democracy
David Marquand
Florence Nightingale: The Woman and Her Legend
Mark Bostridge
Viking   617pp   £25...
Glamour: A History
Stephen Gundle
Oxford University Press   472pp   £20 
The Naval Commanders who made Britain Great
Andrew Lambert ...
1918: A Very British Victory
Peter Hart
Weidenfeld &...
Buildings and People in a Cotswold Town
Antonia Catchpole, David Clark
After the Raj
The Last Stayers-On and the Legacy of British India
Hugh Purcell...
Europe between the Oceans
Themes and Variations: 9000 bc to ad 1000
Barry Cunliffe...

He was certainly in a position of influence longer than any other royal councillor who could possibly claim to rival him. At the age of twenty-eight he was already a member of the inner circle that ran the country on behalf of Edward VI. He was still advising Elizabeth I half a century later. Simply to survive during such a period of violently competing ideologies was in itself an achievement. To head the governmental machine throughout the greater part of Elizabeth’s reign demanded political acumen of the highest order.

Cleopatra the Great

Joann Fletcher

Hodder & Stoughton  464pp.  £25

1434: The Year a Magnificent Chinese Fleet sailed to Italy and Ignited the Renaissance 

Spying on Ireland: British Intelligence and Irish Neutrality During the Second World War - By Eunan O'Halpin

Oxford University Press   335pp   £30 

ISBN 0 19 925329 6

In 1939 IRA bombers were active: five people were killed in Coventry. The Cabinet  refused to reprieve two of the convicted bombers. In Dublin de Valera was to allow hunger-strikers to die, there were executions of  IRA men for capital crimes, and many were interned.

Children of the Revolution
The French, 1799-1914
Robert Gildea
Allen Lane   560pp   £30
ISBN 0 713

For the first time since it had conquered the West Bank and Gaza Strip during the June 1967 Six Day War, the Israeli army found itself on the back foot, portrayed by the world’s media as a badly-disciplined bunch of uniformed thugs who seemed to delight in beating up ordinary Palestinians and shooting at their children with live rounds. For a nation about to celebrate its fortieth anniversary, the Intifada was a sobering reminder of the limits of military power and worrying evidence of the corrosive effects of the occupation of Palestinian land.

The Austerity Olympics: When the Games Came to London in 1948
Janie Hampton
Aurum Press   380pp   £18.99
ISBN 1 845 13334 X

The Threshold of the Modern Age
David Andress
Little Brown   423pp   £14.99
ISBN 0 316 73197 8

The Cuban Missile Crisis and the Threat of Nuclear War: Lessons from History

By Len Scott

Continuum   222pp   £25   ISBN: 1 847 06026 9

History of Cartography
Volume 3: Cartography in the European Renaissance
David Woodward
University of Chicago Press   2,180pp   £200   boxed set  ISBN: 0 226 90732 5

The Wars Against Napoleon: Debunking the Myth of the Napoleonic Wars

Michel Franceschi and Ben Weider

Casemate   227pp   £18.99 ISBN 193 203373 1

The Association Game: A History of British Football

Matthew Taylor

Pearson Longman   516pp   £16.99 ISBN 0 582 50596 4

Matthew Taylor’s book is an authoritative contribution to the growing literature on the history of football in Britain. The author displays an impressive command of his subject with a comprehensive survey of the sport from the nineteenth century to recent times.

Antarctic Destinies: Scott, Shackleton and the Changing Face of Heroism

Stephanie Barczewski

Free Trade Nation
Commerce, Consumption, and Civil Society in Modern Britain
Frank Trentmann

Oppenheimer was a brilliant physicist at a time when physics was full of the brightest minds.  The early years of the century had seen...

Contesting the German Empire, 1871-1918
Matthew Jefferies 
Blackwell   242pp   £19.99
ISBN 1 405

Hambledon Continuum    550 pp  £80   ISBN 1 847 25202 8

Richard Shannon has made a distinguished contribution to the...

Cornwall and the Cross 
Christianity 500-1560

Nicholas Orme
Phillimore  208 pp   £14.99 
ISBN 1 86077 468 3

Cornwall and the Cross is the second in a new series of paperbacks, profusely illustrated in colour, from the Victoria County History, and is based on the larger survey that Nicholas Orme wrote in The Victoria Country History of Cornwall vol. II (2007).

God’s Fury, England’s Fire
A New History of the English Civil Wars
Michael Braddick 
Penguin  ...

Nazis and the Cinema

By Susan Tegel

Hambledon Continuum   324pp  £30 ISBN 1 84725 000 9

Life on Air: A History of Radio Four

By David Hendy

Oxford University Press  518pp  £25   ISBN 0 19 924881 0

Exodus 1947
The Ship That Launched a Nation
Ruth Gruber
Sterling Publishing Co.   206pp   £7.99...
A.L. Rowse and Cornwall
A Paradoxical Portrait
Philip Payton
University of Exeter Press   256pp   £14.99   ISBN 0 85989 798 3
Elizabeth I and Mary Stuart: The Perils of Marriage
Anka Muhlstein
Haus Publishing   408pp   £18  
ISBN 1 904 95085 1

Gouraud’s father, a French emigrant to America, had imbued his son with the sense of adventure bestowed by being an inventor. He developed the camera, and founded the first American photographic magazine; his household was a stimulating one to grow up in. As it turned out, no invention was to stimulate Gouraud like the phonograph, for which he became an ardent apostle after meeting its inventor, Thomas Edison, not long after joining Pullman.

Napoleon’s Wars: An International History

Charles Esdaile

Penguin Allen Lane  622pp £30  ISBN 0 713 99715 6

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