Who's Who


Christopher Haigh on a rich reassessment of Tudor politics and protest.

Alistair Horne finds little of merit in a repeat biography of the wartime leader from Nigel Hamilton.

Robert Bickers on a tale of betrayal in 18th century China

Denise Silverster-Carr on the history of this unique resource for research.

David Blaazer traces rival nationalisms within the British Isles from banknotes.

Margaret Brennand of the Public Record Office on the launch of a major online resource for local and family historians.

Daniel Snowman meets the historian of witches and witchcraft in Early Modern Europe.

In his recent Colin Matthew Memorial Lecture to the Royal Historical Society, Peter Hennessy analyses the power relationships within New Labour

Richard Connaughton on the need to re-evaluate an over-looked conflict of the early 20th century.

Jonathan Williams and Andrew Meadows review the history of the various currencies that were replaced by the Euro.

Melissa Lane looks at the reputation of the great philosopher. both at the time of is death and in subsequent debates about democracy.

Continuing our History and the Environment series, Harriet Ritvo looks at the role of big-game hunting in spreading awareness of the need for conservation

Vivienne Crawford examines the medicinal history of cannabis in Britain.

Lloyd Llewellyn-Jones and Mary Harlow introduce a major conference on clothing in ancient Greece and Rome.

Edward Lucie-Smith

Thomas Fleming's comments on the many calls for 'unconditional surrender'.

John Parker on two contrasting treatments of West African history

Geoffrey Roberts explains the fateful sequence of events from the Nazi-Soviet Pact to Hitler's invasion of the USSR. 

Jez Ross takes issue with the traditional view that sees the early foreign policy of the second Tudor monarch as a costly failure.

Roger Spalding examines the continuing controversy that surrounds one of the key figures in the history of the Labour Party.

Ian F.W. Beckett compares two new histories of the First World War

John Spiller shows that, in constitution-making in the USA (1787-89), France (1789-92) and Great Britain (1830-32), some men were considered more equal than others.

F.G. Stapleton defends the record of Italian governments from 1861 to 1914.

Francis Murphy challenges the idea that science was religion’s foremost enemy, in this winning essay in the 2001 Julia Wood Award.

Russel Tarr asks key questions about the religious radicals of the 16th century.

Bruce Collins considers the mixture of adventurism, disaster, and lethal reprisal that marked British activities in Afghanistan under Victoria

Curator Alex Werner marks the 25th anniversary of the Museum of London

Simon Hall and John Haywood on the publication of a new atlas which fills an unexpected gap in the market

John Styles marks the opening of the new British Galleries at the V&A with a look at influences and innovations during a dynamic period of design history.

Christine Lalumia sees the 1840s as the key moment in the creation of the modern celebration of Christmas.

Lord George Gordon was born on December 26th, 1751.

Stephen Halliday investigates the murky world of financing the London Underground.

Christopher Wilk presents the new galleries presenting the history of design in Britain

Richard Cavendish explains how the Kingdom of Libya was established on December 24th, 1951.

Glen Jeansonne and David Luhrrsen on Gerald L.K. Smith, orator of the far right

The 'puffing devil', the first passenger-carrying vehicle powered by steam, made its debut on a road outside Redruth in Cornwall on December 24th, 1801.

Rhodri Jeffreys-Jones explains the historical roots of the arguments surrounding the CIA following their failure to anticipate the attacks of September 11th.

Geoffrey Regan explains how the experience of boredom in the classroom set him off into a career as inspirational teacher, writer and broadcaster

Joseph Rykwert considers what has led people through the ages to make collections, sometimes of the most unlikely objects, and discusses the value of their activities in the latest article in our series on Picturing History.

'Frankly I am ashamed of being a Briton for the treatment we have meted out to the Boers as revealed by you and so justly condemned in your pages’ - John Burns to W. T. Stead.

In the second article in the Picturing History series, Sander Gilman reflects on images of the First World War and the photographs of Alan Cohen.

Peter Furtado places the events of September 11th, 2001 in historical context.

Christopher Haigh reflects on the life and work of the great Tudor historian, who died in July.

The first Christian missionary to the country, Francis Xavier, departed from Japan on November 21st, 1551, having made perhaps some 2,000 converts.

John Beckett investigates the thorny, and sometimes illogical, issue of what makes a City.

Martyn Housden tries to unravel what Hitler really meant when he talked about living space for the German people.

Kate Greenaway, 'the uncrowned queen of the golden age of children's book illustration', died of cancer, aged fifty-four, on November 6th, 1901.

Richard Overy argues that the lesson Hitler Drew from 1914-18 was not that a major war should be avoided, but that Germany should prepare more systematically so that, next time, she would win.

Martin Roberts regrets lost opportunities in the recent reform of A-level syllabuses

Richard Wilkinson considers the character and standing of the much-despised Nazi Foreign Minister.

Tom Griffiths continues our series on History and the Environment, travelling into the longue durée of the Australian past.

Jason Edwards takes a fresh look at attitudes to the nude in Victorian art, to coincide with Tate Britain's major exhibition on the subject opening this month.

Isabel de Madariaga looks at the personality and achievement of the controversial Empress of Russia.

The speech, which Elizabeth I gave in the Palace of Whitehall on November 30th, 1601, was know at once, and ever afterwards, as Queen Elizabeth's Golden Speech.

Anne Pointer previews some of the latest books on Hitler and the Third Reich.

Paul Preston looks at the continued interest in the 1930s conflict, the subject of a new exhibition at the Imperial War Museum.

Mark Goldie reveals some vivid insights into London life before and during the Glorious Revolution, from a little-known contemporary of Pepys.

Paul Brassley puts MAFF's policy towards Foot and Mouth Disease into historical perspective.

David Hockney explains how a question about some Ingres drawings led to a whole new theory of Western Art

Nicholas Orme investigates toys, games and childhood in the Middle Ages.

Matthew Hughes on new evidence on the 1961 death of the UN Secretary-General.

John Laurence presents a Reporter’s View of Vietnam.

David Dean looks at an Ontario exhibition presenting a new image of the Bard.

Daniel Snowman meets the historian of modern Ireland and biographer of Yeats.

Rosalind D’Eugenio reviews 300 years of academic history.

Richard Monte presents the forthcoming Polish film adaptation of Quo Vadis.

Roy Porter opens our new series on Picturing History, based on a series of lectures organised in conjunction with Reaktion Books, and shows how 18th-century images of the medical profession flow over into the work of political caricaturists.

John D. Pelzer shows the connections between Jazz, Youth and the German Occupation.

Charles Saumarez Smith, Director of the National Portrait Gallery, reflects on some of the issues raised by the exhibition 'Painted Ladies: Women at the Court of Charles II'.

Ron Noon explains the birth and examines the impact of a potent symbol of free enterprise.

Sean Lang has built his passion for history on several key experiences, both in terms of teaching and learning.

Churchill became PM for a second time on October 26th, 1951, only a month away from his seventy-seventh birthday.

October 24th, 1601

October 25th, 1951

How far, asks R.D. Storch, did the reforms in the system of law enforcement, and the detection, trial and punishment of criminals introduced in the nineteenth century make for better order and a real reduction in crime?

James Wilson, the Founding Father from Scotland, sought to enshrine his principles of democracy, explains Geoffrey Seed, in the constitution of the United States of America.

Graham Darby examines the nature and effects of the war that dominated the first half of the 17th century.

Julian Reed-Purvis investigates Stalin's role in the origins of the great purges.

Peter Neville surveys the growth of republicanism in Ireland to the present day.

Martin Johnes explores why sport is an important topic for historical study.

David McKinnon-Bell assesses the degree to which Philip II's policies were motivated by religious zeal.

Jeremy Black is disappointed by a new series.

Alan Farmer shows how the Republic survived the threat from the Right before the First World War.

William D. Rubinstein reviews a new work on this controversial period in British history

Paul Adelman explains a major turning point in modern British history.

Robin Evans shows that the neglect of the history of Wales, and of other small nations, impoverishes our historical understanding.

Simon Lemieux provides guidance on essays comparing the performance of the two adversaries in Victorian Britain.

Museum of London site offering an overview of life in Roman London...

Mark Clapson considers that suburbia holds the key to recent history on both sides of the Atlantic.

Martin Evans discusses how the historian Robert Paxton shifted the terms of debate over the collective memory of Vichy France.

Jason Tomes looks at the reign of King Zog.

Thomas S. Garlinghouse discusses the slow acceptance of archaeological evidence for sophisticated civilisation in pre-Columbian North America

Nicholas Soteri unearths the age-old roots of the Catholic-Orthodox divide.

The young prince hid from Roundhead soldiers on September 6th, 1651.

Elaine Murphy looks at the two families who dominated the private provision of care for the insane in London in the early 19th century.

Edward Corp looks at the life of a monarch in exile, on the 300th anniversary of his death on September 16th, 1701.

Isabel Hariades traces her life in history publishing back to a rich education in Edinburgh and Greece.

Duncan Wilson looks at the history of the Strand site.

September 8th, 1051

Gillian Mawrey looks at the Scottish prizewinners for historic garden conservation and restoration

President William McKinley was shot at a public reception during the Pan-American Exposition in the city of Buffalo on September 6th, 1901.

Reflections from the editors of History Today, Rodina and Damals on the meaning of 1945.

Brian Harrison explains how a national institution is being updated.

Stuart Hood recalls his involvement with the Italian partisans in 1943-44, and is surprised by the way events in which he participated are memorialised.

Pamela Pilbeam looks at the appeal of utopian socialism in early 19th-century France.

Robert Pearce reviews the responses to our annual survey of the world of undergraduate history in British universities.

William Rubinstein continues his survey of topics of enduring popular debate by examining the controversy surrounding the true identity of England's famous bard.

The Science Museum in London last year opened its largest historical gallery. Timothy Boon, its Deputy Project Director, explains the roles of history within the display.

The latest prize winners in historical publishing.

Penelope Johnston explores a new museum of Canadian military history.

August 31st, 1751

August 17th, 1601

Karen Thomas presents the struggles for Sahrawi identity, past and present, in North Africa.

Keith Randell, founder of the inspiring textbook series Access to History, explains how he found his own way in.

Isaac Merritt Singer did not invent the sewing maching, but he patented the first practical and efficient one, on August 12th, 1851.

William Rubinstein reviews new approaches to the Third Reich by Albert Lindemann and the award-winning Michael Burleigh

Margarette Lincoln and Nigel Rigby look forward to Maritime History Week in July.

Bamber Gascoigne tells how he overcame his aversion to history and took on the whole world as his subject

Stuart Leibiger looks at one of the most significant relationships behind the politics that produced the American Constitution.

Michael Williams continues our series on History and the Environment by considering how long humans have been making ever-growing inroads into forests.

David Hey looks at what our surnames can tell us about our origins.

Robert Curthose invaded England on July 21st, 1101.

Philippe Pétain died on July 23rd, 1951, aged 95, at Port Joinville in the Vendée region of France.

John Erickson reviews the recent controversies surrounding Hitler's invasion of the Soviet Union.

Robert Bud looks at the background to the major conference and displays at the Science Museum.

Alastair Dunn reviews the afterlife of an English rebel.

America's "motor city" was founded on July 24th, 1701.

Philip de Souza considers the impact of piracy on Roman economic and political life

Richard Wilson and Alan Mackley examine the practical aspects of constructing a stately pile in the period 1660 to 1880.

Penny Young reviews the painstaking recreation of an ancient Syrian monastery.

Robert Bickers reviews the legacy of the 1900 uprising.

David Johnson looks at the art of Sayers and Gillray and the role of pictorial satire in the destruction of a government.

Andrew McCulloch draws attention to an important omission from a recent television reconstruction on 1940s London

Beatrice K. Otto finds court jesters across the world and in every age.

Richard Godfrey previews the Gillray exhibition at Tate Britain this summer.

Michael Hunter tells how a mysterious phenomenon in the Highlands sparked a debate between scientific virtuosi and urban sceptics, in an episode that helps shed light on the vexed issue of ‘the decline of magic’.

Philip Lyndon Reynolds considers the battle between faith and reason in approaching a key subject of human existence.

Helen Rappaport tells the story of James Abbe, a little-known American photographer, whose images of the USSR in the 1930s record both the official and unofficial faces of the Stalinist regime.

Harriet Beecher Stowe's influential work first appeared in the National Era on June 5th, 1851.

Simon Craig finds that bribery scandals in cricket are nothing new and that even Englishmen are not incorruptible.

Richard Cavendish explains how the Act of Settlement, signed by William III on June 12th, 1701, brought the Hanoverian dynasty to the throne.

Dan van der Vat discusses Jerry Bruckheimer's 2001 film Pearl Harbor and the lessons the US has learned from the attack.

David Moulson looks at the history of pewter, as a new dedicated museum opens in Stratford-upon-Avon.

Anthony Kersting, architectural photographer, describes how his passion for buildings was fuelled by a Middle Eastern posting during the War

Siegfried Beer looks at the links between The Third Man and British intelligence.

Julian Swann reviews real and imagined conspiracies in early modern Europe.

David Cannadine sees the British Empire as a spectacular and colourful extension of the social order of the home country

Jan Bonderson describes a bizarre series of assaults on London ladies in 1790, and explores the effects of this and other heinous crime epidemics on the capital.

Richard Cavendish describes the events leading up to the nationalisation of Iranian oil fields on May 2nd, 1951.

David Brewer shows that while ‘ethnic truth’ does little to explain history, history does much to explain ‘ethnic truth’

Anthony Bryer considers the life and work of this great historian, who died in November 2000.

New collection of essays on the eccentric Russian leader

Richard Cavendish recalls the death of the pirate William Kidd, executed on May 23rd, 1701.

Jim Kelsey looks at the current transformation of the Royal Albert Hall.

Daniel Snowman previews a new exhibition in Berlin.

Two new social histories of ancient Greece

Martin Daunton reviews a mammoth survey of the role of money in the modern world by Niall Ferguson

Peter H. Wilson suggests that the aggressiveness of Wilhelmine Germany was not necessarily a direct consequence of the Prussian social system of the eighteenth century.

Philip Stott unravels the emergence of myths about the tropical rain forests.

Geoffrey Best, doyen of Victorian history, demonstrates that not all leading scholars start out as swots

On the 60th anniversary of the sinking of HMS Hood, Malcolm Gaskill looks at the prosecution of medium Helen Duncan for witchcraft in 1944.

Jeremy Black reviews a book on empire by David Armitage

New series of introductions to major historical topics

Donald M. MacRaild reviews a new work by Marianne Eliott

Japan's 124th Emperor was born on April 29th, 1901

John MacKenzie reviews the impact of Queen Victoria in shaping a new national identity and institutions, as the V&A opens its new exhibition on the Victorian Vision.

Susan Walker looks at our image of the great queen, as a major exhibition on her life opens at the British Museum.

Alexandra Walsham looks for the meaning of unusual phenomena widely reported across early modern Europe.

 Lucy Marten-Holden, winner of the first Royal Historical Society / History Today award for the undergraduate dissertation of the year, explores the thinking behind the siting of the Norman castles of Suffolk.

Daniel Snowman introduces our new anthology, published later this month by Sutton Publishers.

Douglas Johnson, historian of France and HT academic board member, explains how a youthful attraction to libraries opened doors for him.

David Lowenthal introduces our new series on History and the Environment with an overview of the subject and of human interaction with the world we inhabit.

Roy Porter discusses how the British Enlightenment paved the way for the modern world.

Richard Cavendish provides a brief history of the Miss World contest, first won by Miss Sweden, Kiki Haakinson, on April 19th, 1951.

History Today was not the only exciting new publishing enterprise to be launched after a lengthy gestation in post-war Britain in 1951. The Pevsner Architectural Guides, which also celebrate their fiftieth anniversary this year, have become a household name to anyone with more than a passing interest in the counties of England and their buildings.

Tony Aldous looks at the genesis and reception of the Royal Festival Hall, like us celebrating its 50th anniversary this spring.

York Membery looks at the advertisements that graced the first issue of History Today, and sees in them a reflection of the magazine's own past, and of a changing society.

Roland Quinault adds to our Portrait of our Britain series by looking at the state of the islands immediately following the Second World War.

Peter Burke describes how the study of visual sources has extended the range of historical enquiry.

Richard Cavendish marks the anniversary of an important Scandinavian battle, which originally took place on April 2nd, 1801

LCC housing architects and their work between 1893 and 1914, by Michael Crowder

Mary Gould gives her tips for success.

Edgar Feuchtwanger assesses Bismarck's controversial career and legacy.

Geoffrey Woodward assesses how great an impact the Turks had on sixteenth-century Europe.

Andrew Robinson enjoys contradicting the image too many people have of the medieval period.

David Dutton analyses Austen Chamberlain's impact on British foreign policy, and European affairs, between the wars.

Michael Morrogh explains why Gladstone took up the cause of Irish home rule and why his policies failed so tragically.

John Claydon charts a course across the complex minefield of Nazi historiography.

Tim Coates reviews the new Uncovered Editions from The Stationery Office which reprint government documents on historical topics.

Charlotte Crow reviews the Museum of London exhibition tracing three centuries of artistic creativity in London.

Steve Parissien looks at the posthumous assessments of George IV and his reign - and finds the king's historical reputation falls short of the image he sought to project.

Aubrey Burl explains how the myth of the stones transported from south Wales to Salisbury Plain arose and why it is wrong.

Richard Cavendish marks the somewhat mysterious death of a Georgian prince, on March 20th, 1751.

Geoff Metzger, head of The History Channel in the UK, describes a youth well spent at the movies.

Reggie Oliver looks at the links between some of the highest-placed women in Louis XIV's court and some notorious Parisian dealers in drugs, death and the dark arts

The Russian emperor was assassinated on March 24th, 1801.

Hannah Diamond and Claire Gorrara examine recent debates over resistance to the German occupation of France.

Timothy Benson assesses Hitler's irritated reaction to being lampooned by David Low of the Evening Standard.

Timur's army attacked the ancient town on March 24th, 1401.

Angus Mitchell shows that new scientific methods are sometimes unable to settle old historical controversies.

Museum of New Zealand

David Ellwood shows how anti-American feelings today have roots and parallels in the past.

Gabriel Fawcett looks at the efforts being made by history teachers in Germany to combat racism and neo-Nazism.

Kathleen Sands reveals a little-known episode in the career of the famous English martyrologist.

Jeri DeBrohun looks at the meanings expressed in the style of clothes and personal adornment adopted by men and women in the ancient world.

Neil Evans seeks out the motives for the rash of racial tension seen on both sides of the Atlantic immediately after the end of the First World War.

Solving the mystery of the British Prime Minister's wartime recordings.

Aram Bakshian, Jr. takes a wry look at the recent American presidential elections.

Mary Ann Steggles recalls the circumstances of the many monuments to Queen Victoria that were erected in India, and traces their fate.

After a failed coup d'état against Elizabeth I, Robert Devereux was beheaded at the Tower of London on February 25th, 1601

Peter Gray and Kendrick Oliver review the debate surrounding the commemoration of historical disasters.

Andrew MacLennan, longtime history editor at Longman Publishers, explains why his love for the subject is simply second nature to him.

Australian prospectors struck gold on February 12th, 1851.

The Prussian Kingdom was founded on January 18th, 1701, when the Elector Frederick III had himself crowned Frederick I at Konigsberg.

Anthony Bryer takes a Byzantine view of time and identity.

Daniel Snowman meets the biographer of Henry VIII and Elizabeth I, media don and constitutional expert.

Guiseppe Verdi, described by the Italian parliament as 'one of the highest expressions of the national genius' died on January 27th, 1901, aged 87.

Richard Vinen shows how events of the last 10 years have forced him to rethink his own assumptions about the past.

Unearthing the Cumbrian city's Roman past.

History Today celebrates 50 years in print

Started in 1947, to grow peanuts in Tanganyika as a contribution to both the African and British economies, the Groundnuts Scheme was abandoned four years later on January 9th, 1951.

Paul Dukes takes a fresh look at the Cold War in the light of some recurring themes of Russian and American history since the 18th century.

Lyn and Michael Hymers explain what made them reconstruct life during the Blitz for the benefit of television cameras.

Lynne Stembridge looks beyond the homespun image of the Shakers, to reveal the substance of the original movement and its sometimes turbulent past.

Annual competition for essays on Oliver Cromwell.

Jack the Ripper: Letters from Hell by Stewart P. Evans and Keith Skinner

Sutton Publishing   306pp   £20   ISBN 0-7509-2549-3

The Invention of the Countryside: Hunting, Walking and Ecology in English Literature, 1671-1831 by Donna Landry


Who's Who in Shakespeare's England

By A. and V. Palmer

Harvester Press, 352 pp.

Napoleon and Wellington

By Andrew Roberts

Weidenfeld and Nicolson 382 pp. ISBN 0 29764607 9

Civilising the Urban
Popular Culture and Public Space in Merthyr,
c. 1870-1914
Andy Croll

The Bridge from Antiquity to the Middle Ages
Michael Angold
Weidenfeld & Nicolson  

Hitler 1936-1945: Nemesis
Ian Kershaw
Allen Lane, 2000 1115 pp
ISBN 0 713 99229 8

Ian Kershaw’s substantial reputation is based on careful, balanced scholarship. His work rarely fails to display the most formidable knowledge of a formative period of modern European History. The second volume of his Hitler project justifies a reputation as one of the most reliable historians around. In a text of over 840 pages (plus 200 pages of references), the reader finds a comprehensive treatment of a life which fascinates and horrifies.

The Hidden Hitler

by Lothar Machtan (Translated by John Brownjohn)

Perseus Press   £19.99 viii + 434pp  ISBN 1-903985-01-3

Anicent History and Archaeology

This season sees an array of new titles about those whose pioneering archaeological investigations have been so significant to our understanding of the ancient world. Egyptian Diaries: the treacherous story of the mysteries of the Nile by Jean-Francois Champollion (Gibson Square, £10.99) catalogues the unraveling of the hieroglyphic code. When Champollion discovered the code in 1822, he needed proof that he was right, and this could only be found in Egypt.

Geopolitics and Globalization in the Twentieth Century
Brian W. Blouet
Reaktion Books Ltd   204 pp   £25
ISBN 1 86189 0850 0

Everyday Stalinism: ordinary life in extraordinary times: Soviet Russia in the 1930s
Sheila Fitzpatrick
Oxford University Press, 2001
328pp, £8.99 paperback
ISBN  0 19 505001 0

Sheila Fitzpatrick's account of the day-to-day existence of ordinary citizens deliberately stays within the boundaries of life in Russian towns in the 1930s and balances, therefore, her earlier book on the Soviet peasantry.

Encyclopedia of Greece and the Hellenic Tradition
Edited by Graham Speake
Fitzroy Dearborn    £190    2 volumes, xxxvii + 1,861pp.
ISBN 1-57958-141-2

A Social History of Knowledge. From Gutenberg to Diderot
Peter Burke
(Polity Press, 268pp,  ISBN 0-7456-2485-5, £45.00 hb, £13.99 pb)

Curiosity. A Cultural History of Early Modern Inquiry
Barbara M.Benedict
University of Chicago Press, 321pp, ISBN0-226-04263-4, $45.00 hb

Probing the Depths of German Antisemitism: German Society and the Persecution of the Jews, 1933-1941 edited by David Bankier ( Berghahn Books   585pp   £25.00   ISBN 1-57181-238-5)

National Socialist Extermination Policies: Contemporary German Perspectives and Controversies edited by Ulrich Herbert (Berghahn Books    pp. 228   h/b £47.00. ISBN 1-57181-750-6 p/b £13.95. ISBN 1-57181-751-4)

Ireland and the Great War by Keith Jeffery

Cambridge University Press £16.95 208pp. ISBN 0 521 77323 7

Victorian Sensation: The Extraordinary Publication, Reception, and Secret Authorship of Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation

By James Secord

(University of Chicago £22.50 624pp ISBN 0 226 74410 8)

Ireland The 20th century
Charles Townshend

(Arnold xxx + 281pp p/b £14.99 ISBN 0 340 66335 9)

Ireland and Empire Colonial Legacies in Irish History and Culture
Stephen Howe
(Oxford University Press 334pp £25 ISBN 0 198 20825 1)

The Emperor’s Codes: The role of Bletchley Park in breaking Japan’s secret ciphers

by  Michael Smith

Bantam Press, £16.99  333pp ISBN 0-593-0461-2

During half a millennium of Brazilian history, celebrated in the year 2000, no ruler had more influence on the shaping of the nation than Brazil’s...

This lavishly illustrated book uses archaeology to put the Atlantic seabord on the map, much as the great French historian Braudel reconstructed the Mediterranean in the Age of Philip II.

Imagining the King’s Death:  Figurative Treason, Fantasies of Regicide 1793 – 1796 by John Barrell

Anybody not put off by the price or bulk of this book will find it a fascinating rumination on the meanings of words used in the treason trials of the 1790s. As Professor Barrell puts it, in his long and absorbing Introduction, ‘I have not thought of myself, while writing this book, as a political or cultural historian, but as a historian of literature who reads the details of texts, whether poems, trials, or parliamentary debates, as literary critics do’.

  • Democracy in America by Alexis de Tocqueville Translated, edited, and with an Introduction by Harvey C. Mansfield and Delba Winthrop 
    University of Chicago Press $35.00 / £22.50  ISBN 022 680532 8
  • The Ideal of Alexis de Tocqueville by Manning Clark 
    Edited by Dymphna Clark, David Headon and John Williams
  • Crime, Justice, and Discretion in England 1740-1820 by Peter King
    Oxford University Press  £55  xiii + 383 pp ISBN 0 19 822910 0

    Hurried trials, overawed prisoners, ambivalent judges, convictions on flimsy evidence, reward-hungry entrepreneurial police, and many other more structural aspects of the judicial system, such as the gender- and property-based qualifications that had to be met by jurors and magistrates, discourage any idealization of the quality of justice in this period’.

    • American Tragedy: Kennedy, Johnson, and the Origins of the Vietnam War by David Kaiser
      Harvard University Press  £18.50   566 pp    ISBN 0 674 00225 3
    • Choosing War: The Lost Chance for Peace and the Escalation of War in Vietnam by Fredrick Logevall
      University of California Press  $35   443 pp   ISBN  0520 21511 7
    • A Noble Cause? America and the Vietnam War by Gerald J. DeGroot

     Crime and Mentalities in Early Modern England by  Malcolm Gaskill
     Cambridge University Press (Studies in Early Modern British History)
     xiii + 377 pp £42.50  ISBN  0 52157275 4

    Women’s Writing on the First World War

    Edited by Agnes Cardinal, Dorothy Goldmanand Judith Hattaway (Oxford University Press) £25   xiii + 374 pp   ISBN 0 19 812280 2

    Nice Girls and Rude Girls: Women Workers in World War I

    by Deborah Thom (I. B. Tauris) £39.50   xvi + 224 pp   ISBN 1 86064 198 9

    Disloyal Mothers and Scurrilous Citizens:  Women and Subversion during World War I

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