Issue 38 December 2000

Geoffrey Roberts explains when and why the Cold War began.

John Claydon provides practical guidance on a vexed issue.

Jonathan Lewis points to the centrality of foreign policy in the making and unmaking of English kings in the fifteenth century.

Michael Mullett shows how the reform of the Catholic Church in sixteenth-century Europe sprang from medieval origins but that, in important ways, it was affected by the Protestant Reformation.

John Morison shows how an accumulation of grievances resulted in a spontaneous revolution in Russia in 1905.

To mark the quincentenary of the birth in 1500 of the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, Glenn Richardson examines the emperor's ambitions and achievements.

Jenny Bryce asks why the Americans introduced the 18th Amendment when the historical evidence suggested it was doomed to failure. This essay won the Julia Wood prize in 2000.

Graham Goodlad considers the background to the reform of the Poor Law in 1834 and its impact on society.

Michael Morrogh explains the significance of Lloyd George's answer to the Irish question.